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CD 2301 Phonetics

Exam 1 study guide

sagittal plane imagine a vertical plane that runs through your body from front to back or back to front. This plane divides the body into right and left regions. (Permits lateral view)
lateral away from the axis or midline
frontal/coronal Plane imagine a vertical plane that runs through the center of your body from side to side. This plane divides the body into front (anterior) and back (posterior) regions. (permits anterior-posterior or A-P view)
anterior toward the front or away from the back
posterior toward the back, or away from the front
transverse plane imagine a horizontal plane that runs through the midsection of your body. This plane divides the body into upper (superior) and lower (inferior) regions.
medial toward the axis or midline.
distal away from the body or free extremity
proximal toward the body or root of a free extremity
phoneme basic sound segment with linguistic function of distinguishing morphemes.
allophone one of the sound variants within a phoneme class, often used in a specified phonetic context; a phonetic variant of a phoneme. Two of these of the same phoneme never contrast to produce two different morphemes – so they do not have a linguistic function.
grapheme (alphabetic letters) “c, f, m, r, b, p, v, h;” a unit in the writing system of a language
morpheme the minimal unit of meaning - or – smallest unit of language that carries semantic interpretation.
phonetic symbol placed in brackets to represent allophones or phonetic variants of phonemes, such as [ ].
fundamental frequency of voice the basic rate of vibration of the vocal folds; the physical correlate of vocal pitch; the rate of vocal fold vibration. High fundamental frequency is associated with high pitch and vice versa
Hertz how we describe fundamental frequency; the unit of frequency measurement; One Hz is one complete cycle of vibration per second. 20 Hz is 20 complete vibrations per second, which is the lower range for the human ear.
intonation the pattern of fundamental frequency and sound duration in speech; used to mark sentences as declarative or interrogative, place emphasis or stress on certain words, or signal emotions and attitudes.
breath group the sequence of words or syllables produced on a single expiration; the sequence of syllables and/or words produced on a single breath
laryngeal system the system of speech production identified anatomically with the larynx and functionally with control of phonation and voicing
egressive associated with outflowing air; _________ sounds are formed from an outflowing airstream all sounds in English are normally produced with a flow of air that moves outward from the lungs. Produced from the expiratory phase of respiration.
expiratory air movement traveling out from the lungs during respiration
ingressive associated with inflowing air; ________ sounds are formed from an inflowing airstream; some languages include sounds produced with an inward flow of air. Produced from inspiratory phase of respiration.
inspiratory air movement travelling into the lungs during respiration
phonetics the study of the production and perception of speech sounds. In our case, speech sounds in the American English Language; the study of how speech sounds are produced and what their acoustic properties are.
clinical phonetics the application of phonetics to describe speech differences and disorders, including information about speech sounds and the perceptual skills used in clinical settings.
suprasegmental pitch, volume, that overlay the speech sound
system complexity (vertical axis) each of the 3 systems used in clinical phonetics is appropriate in certain situations for assessing & managing individuals with communication disorders
two-way scoring a perceptual system in which speed sound productions are dichotomized into two classes representing typical versus atypical behavior (e.g. correct vs. incorrect, right vs. wrong, etc.)
five-way scoring a perceptual system in which speech sounds are classified as typical versus one of four error types: an addition, deletion (or omission), a substitution, or a distortion
linguistic complexity (horizontal axis) divides speech into 4 linguistic contexts of increasing linguistic complexity; the context in which a sound to be transcribed is embedded, which may range from a sound in isolation to a sound occurring in conversational speech
responses complexity the number of target sounds to be transcribed, which may from from only one sound to all sounds occurring in a selection of speech; depending on the situation, the clinician will need to perceptually score or transcribe either one or multiple sounds.
deletion a speech production error in which a sound is omitted (also termed an omission)
substitution a speech production error in which a speech sound is replaced by another speech sound
distortion a speech production error in which a speech sound is recognizable as the correct sound but is not produced exactly correctly
addition when a sound is added to a word; a speech sound error in which a sound is incorrectly added (before or after) to another sound
speech defined as both the pattern of the movements of the speech organs and a pattern of acoustic vibration; a mode of language expression based on sounds emitted through the mouth and nose.
speech community people who live close together in a geographic area and communicate in a common language; a group of people who live within the same geographic boundaries and use the same language
dialects within countries, speakers differ from others of the same language in terms of pronunciation, vocabulary or grammatical construction.
regional dialects dialects based upon characteristics of people who live in certain groups; a pattern of language usage that is shared by people living in a particular geographic region; a language may have several of these
General American English (GAE) what we as Americans speak
idiolect speech pattern that identifies us as an individual and is determined by being a member of our speech community, regional background, social class and various other individual factors and personal experiences
lexicon list of morphemes in a language; an inventory of the morphemes in a language
dictionary an inventory of the words in a language, usually together with their meaning
morphemics/morphology the study of morphemes; a subfield of linguistics
morphemic transcription a way to address the complexity as a written record of morphemic content of utterances and can be used to analyze a language sample of a child; a written account of the morphemic content of a language sample
morphemic contrasts the sounds represented by the above graphemes are phonemes of the English language and are identified by their role
minimal contrasts the contrasts between two morphemes that differ in only one sound segment
phonology the study of sound systems of language - the structure and function of sounds in languages.
phonetics two areas Articulatory Phonetics Acoustic Phonetics
articulatory phonetics the branch of phonetics that deals with how sounds are formed; also called physiological phonetics
acoustic phonetics the branch of phonetics that deals with the acoustic properties of sounds; acoustics is a subfield of physics that deals with the generation and transmission of sound
minimal pairs word pairs resulting from a change to one phoneme are called this (pill/bill, tube/cube, etc.): however, the phoneme is not a single, invariant sound
free variations can be exchanged for one another in a given phonetic context; "pop" with and without aspiration
complementary distribution not normally exchanged for one another in phonetic context - or the conditions of occurrence of another phoneme; "key, kit, cape, cat" are made toward the front due to the vowels but "coo, cook, coat, cot" are more backed
morphs individual morpheme-like shapes in a language sample; most are morphemes
phone any particular occurrence of a sound segment of speech
neologisms newly coined words often introduce derivations; for example (workaholic). "Work" = morpheme, "ic" = morpheme, but "ahol does not
alphabet set of letters or characters used for writing of a language; a system of written symbols used to express a language
diagraphs a sequence of two or more alphabet characters that represent a single sound (path, phone, etc.)
clusters a sequence of 2 or more alphabet characters that represent 2 or more sounds they are clusters (slide, string, etc.)
initial the location at the beginning of a word; the first position or segment in a word
medial the location at the middle of a word; a middle position or segment in a word
final the location at the end of a word; the last position or segment in a word
releasing and arresting terms representing the location in a syllable
releasing another name for syllable-initial sounds; they begin the syllable
arresting another name for syllable-final sounds; they stop the syllable
prevocalic the consonant before a vowel
postvocalic the consonant after a vowel
open syllables do not end in consonants (law, see, throw)
closed syllables syllables ending in a consonant (lot, seep, throat)
syllable unit of spoken language comprised of nucleus (usually a vowel) with optional initial & final margins (typically a consonant)
onset initial margin or releasing consonant
coda final margin or arresting consonant
syllabary phonetic writing system using symbols to represent syllables rather than individual sounds
superior upper
inferior lower
3 systems of speech production 1. Respiratory 2. Laryngeal 3. Supralaryngeal
respiratory system the part of speech production mechanism consisting of the lungs, rib cage, abdomen, and associated muscles; acts a pump to provide the movement of air for speech production and consists primarily of: lungs rib cage abdomen associated muscles
larynx the "voice box" of speech; a structure made up of cartilage, muscles, and other tissues in the neck; "voice box" is mostly cartilage and muscles and is situated on top of the trachea and below the pharynx and serves to valve the airstream from the lungs
trachea air pipe connecting the lungs with the larynx
vocal folds small cushions of muscle inside the larynx
glottis space between the vocal folds
pitch determined by the rate of vibration of the vocal folds; the bigger the pipe and vocal folds the lower it is
supra a morpheme meaning above
supralaryngeal system part of the speech mechanism lying above the larynx; the system of speech production consisting of the pharnygeal, oral, and nasal structures
supralaryngeal system components 1. Pharyngeal 2. Oral 3. Nasal
pharynx lying directly above the larynx is a muscular tube called this
pharyngeal cavity the space between the division of the oral and pharyngeal cavities and the entrance to the larynx; its anterior boundary is the root of the tongue, and its posterior boundary is the pharyngeal wall
velum or soft palate described as a hanging door or one of the "valves" Its position directs the air flow through the oral or nasal cavity (or allows for both)
oral radiation of sound in words where the velum is raised the entire time; transmission of sound through the oral cavity (rather than through the nasal cavity)
articulators the structures used in the process of articulation (tongue, teeth, lips, etc.)
lingual or lingua tongue
labial lips
velar velum
alveolar alveolar ridge
dental teeth
nasal radiation of sound in words where velum is lowered and the entrance to the nasal cavity is open; transmission of sound through the nasal cavity (rather than through the oral cavity)
velopharyngeal port opening between the oral pharyngeal and nasal cavities; the opening between the oropharynx and the nasal cavity, which can be closed to prevent the nasal transmission of sound
mandible lower jaw; contribute to the tongue and lower lip, both of which are supported by the jaw
temporomandibular joint jaw has a hinge-like motion made possible by joints close to the ear; allows the jaw to rotate and slightly forward and backward to allow for mandibular protrusion and retrusion
tongue a muscular organ with no internal skeleton
five functional parts of the tongue 1. Body 2. Tip 3. Blade 4. Dorsum 5. Root (or Base)
body of tongue primary bulk or mass of tongue; used to describe vowel articulation; vowel in heat is high-front
tip of tongue the forwardmost portion of the tongue, visible upon protrusion of the tongue from the mouth; also the apex; visible when it protrudes between the lips; very important in articulation of consonants
blade of tongue just behind the tip; constricts for the "sh' sound; used for few sounds, but shapes tongue for others; the portion of the tongue that is located behind the tip and in front of the dorsum
dorsum of tongue the portion of the tongue located between the root and the blade; also "back" of tongue; used for making the "k, g, ng" sounds; depending on sound/word being said, it makes contact with hard and soft palate
root of tongue (base) the long segment of tongue that forms the front wall of the pharynx; doesn't make contact for English consonants but shapes vocal tract for vowels and consonants; also important in swallowing
lips contribute to articulation primarily by opening and closing, rounding and protruding
broad transcription phonetic transcription that uses phonemes exclusively and does not indicate finer variations such as those marked by diacritics
narrow (close) description includes symbols to represent both the speech sounds produced and symbols slight variations in the productions of those sounds
phonetic transcription a visual representation of speech sounds, typically accomplished with the symbols of the International Phonetic Association (IPA). The main symbols represent individual phonemes or allophones and transcriptions also may include marks for sound
phonetic transcription (continued) modifications, stress level, and other aspects of speech
target sound the sound to be transcribed, as it occurs in isolation or together with other speech sounds
allograph any one alphabet letter or combination of letters that represents a particular phoneme; one may be represented (spelled) by several different ones many different letters or combinations of letters that represent the same phoneme.
allograph (example) /c/ - “ship, sugar, tissue, machine, creation, precious” and “anxious.” (sh, s, ss, ch, ti, ci and x).
complementary distribution (textbook) a term used to describe two or more allophones of a particular phoneme that occur in mutually exclusive phonetic contexts
diacritic mark a special symbol used to modify a phonetic symbol to indicate a particular modification of sound production
dialect (textbook) different usage patterns within a langauge; speakers of one _________ may or may not easily understand speakers of another ___________ of the same langauage
free variation a term used to describe allophones that may be exchanged for one another in a particular phonetic context
germinates sounds that occur together as a pair, such as the two k sounds in bookeeper or the two s sounds as in gas supply
minimum contrast (textbook) a sound segment distinction by which two morphemes or words differ in pronunciation; basic to the discovery of phonemes in a language
morphology that part of linguistics concerned with the study of morphemes, the meaning-bearing elements of a language
phoneme (textbook) a basic speech segment that has the linguistic function of distinguishing morphemes (the minimal units of meaning in a language
sign language a system of communication that uses manual symbols, such as hand positions, postures, and movements to express language
articulator an anatomic structure capable of movements that form the sounds of speech; the primary __________(s) are the tongue, jaw, lips, and velopharynx
mandible the lower jaw, the bony structure that provides skeletal support for the tongue and lower lip
nasal cavity the space between the nares (nostrils) and the entrance into the pharynx
oral cavity the space between the lips and the entrance to the pharynx
root of tongue - base (textbook) the part of tongue that reaches downward from the dorsum of the tongue to the epiglottis and larynx
soft palate the soft-tissue structure that articulates to open or close the velopharynx
temporomandibular joint (textbook) the hinge joint by which the jaw, or mandible, attaches to the temporal bone of the skull
thoracic cavity the chest cavity, containing the lungs, heart, and other organs
trachea the "windpipe" that connects the lungs with the larynx, or "voice box"
velum the soft palate, especially its muscular portion; articulates to open or close the velopharynx
vocal folds the paired cushions of muscle and other tissue that vibrate within the larynx to produce the sound of voicing
Created by: ryanriggs_90



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