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Speech Science

Exam 1 study guide

sound the propagation of a pressure/sound wave in space and time
sound components 1. elastic medium 2. vibrating body 3. receiver - detect sound
What does it mean to say molecular movement involves to-and-fro action during sound production? Sound waves involve a to-and-fro or back and forth movement (vibration) of a body about its resting position. These vibrations can be either periodic or aperiodic and are initiated based on a bumping force.
List and define four components needed for vibration to occur. 1. Mass 2. Elasticity 3. Inertia 4. Small damping factor
Mass any form of matter capable of vibratory motion. Examples: solid-irritating metal part in dashboard of car; liquid - water vibrating as result of pebble in water; gas - air molecules in the vocal tract
Elasticity tendency of an object to resume to its original condition after some change is introduced (recoil force). Different levels of elasticity exist; metal rod (little because it can't bend easily) vs. rubber band (lot)
Inertia property that causes a body in motion to remain in motion and a body at rest to remain at rest
Small damping factor any force that interferes with vibration and causes energy loss to the system (vibration results in molecules rubbing against each other and surfaces resulting in heat loss). Analogy: vibration in dashboard of a car
What is Brownian Motion? The molecules themselves do not propagate or move across space. What moves across space? Molecules at rest are actually still in motion (Brownian motion) but the average resting space between molecules is equivalent. What moves across space is the pressure wave, shown in Figure 7-2 from left to right as the sequence of high and low densities.
Discuss the relationship between densely packed molecules, force, and pressure. Pressure is proportional to the density of air. When air molecules are more densely packed in a specific unit volume, they tend to collide with each other more frequently (ex: air molecules in the lungs).
Discuss the relationship between densely packed molecules, force, and pressure (continued). The colliding generates force and the more densely packed the molecules, the more force and more pressure. For less densely packed molecules, the molecules collide less often leading to less force and therefore, less pressure.
State of compression or condensation Point where adjacent molecules are closest together and pressure is the greatest (positive pressure relative to the resting state level or atmospheric pressure).
State of Rarefaction Point where two adjacent molecules are furthest from each other during vibration and pressure is least (below atmospheric pressure).
Sinusoidal motion linear projection of uniform circular speed
Uniform circular speed (UCS) involves a rotating object crossing equal angles in equal amounts of time as an imaginary dot travels around the circumference of a circle.
List and define the parameters used to describe a sine wave. Be able to label the parameters on a sine wave. Be able to draw sine waves of different amplitudes and frequencies. 1. Cycle 2. Frequency 3. Period 4. Wavelength 5. Displacement 6. Amplitude 7. Phase
Cycle the movement of a wave form from atmospheric pressure to a level of maximum condensation (compression), back to atmospheric pressure to a level of maximum rarefaction, back to atmospheric pressure.
Frequency the number of full cycles completed during a given period of time (typically the time period is one second.) The unit of frequency is hertz (Hz.) cycles per second. The greater the frequency, the greater number of cycles produced during a period of time.
Period the time required to complete one cycle of vibration (the temporal duration of a cycle). The unit of measure for period is either milliseconds (ms) or seconds.
Wavelength the distance moved in one cycle of pressure variation within the sound wave.
Displacement the change in pressure across time relative to the resting pressure or the atmospheric pressure.
Amplitude the absolute sum of the maximum positive pressure and the maximum negative pressure displacement. In terms of a sound wave, amplitude can be represented in intensity units (i.e., decibels).
Phase the portion of a cycle that has been passed through up to a given distance in time; is usually talked about in terms of the number of degrees.
Period formula T = 1/f
Frequency formula as relation to period f = 1/t
Wavelength formula W = c/f
Frequency formula as relation to wavelength f = c/W
speed of sound c = 336 meters/second
Plane wave (longitudinal wave) a pressure wave moves away from the source of the sound waves (forces that initiated the displacement of air molecules), the alternating regions of high and low pressures often project in a straight line.
Longitudinal wave A wave in which the particles of the medium move along the same axis as the wave.
Transverse wave A wave in which the motion of the molecules of the medium is perpendicular to the direction of the wave.
What kind of waves are sound waves? They are longitudinal meaning each particle oscillates back and forth in the same direction that the wave travels.
How does temperature and the medium the sound travels through influence the speed of sound? Higher temperatures make the speed faster; the higher the density, the higher speed of sound.
1 Hertz .001 kilohertz (kHz)
1 kHz 1000 Hertz
Periodic vibration that repeats in equal intervals
Aperiodic vibration that does not repeat itself in equal interval
Complex acoustic events 1. Complex periodic event 2. Complex aperiodic event
Complex periodic event those in which the waveform pattern repeats over time
Complex aperiodic event those in which no repeating pattern can be identified
What are the x and y axes on a spectrum? x-axis is frequency; y-axis is relative amplitude
What are the x and y axes on a waveform? x-axis is time; y-axis is relative amplitude
What is the difference between a time domain display and a frequency domain display? Simple and complex periodic waves are provided in the next slide in terms of time domain (waveform displays) and frequency domain (spectrum displays).
Waveform display time on x-axis and amplitude on y-axis;
Spectrum display frequency on x-axis and amplitude on y-axis
1 second 1000 milliseconds
1 millisecond .001 seconds
1 meter 100 centimeters
1 centimeter .01 meters
Fundamental frequency (F0) It is determined by the rate of repetition of the major waveform pattern, as indicated by the marked periods on the two waveforms. It is the lowest frequency in a complex periodic sound.
Harmonics higher frequencies are called these and are whole-number multiples of the fundamental frequency
What does it mean that energy is discrete for a complex periodic wave? Energy is discrete for complex periodic waveforms with only the energy present for each harmonic or sinusoid frequency.
Constructive Interference where areas of compression and rarefaction combine at the same time and same moment in space, the amplitude of the wave can double.
Destructive Interference occurs when an area of compression and an area of rarefaction combine at the same time and same moment in space, leading to decreased amplitude.
Is the amplitude of molecular movement greater for a loud verses soft sound? Amplitude of molecular is greater for louder sounds and lesser for softer sounds.
Resonance the phenomenon whereby an object vibrates with maximum energy at a particular frequency. All matter when set in motion has a natural resonant frequency at which it vibrates.
Natural Resonant Frequency a particular frequency that "naturally" leads to the greatest amplitude of vibration. It is the frequency at which an object vibrates depending on its physical characteristics.
Elasticity is measured in terms of stiffness (K)
Stiffness formula K = Force/Meters
Force the push or pull on an object; described in terms of an equivalent weight required to displace an object some distance
inertance acoustic mass
What does it mean that a tube has a uniform cross-sectional area? The tube resonator has a uniform cross-sectional area along the length of the tube. In other words, if a slice of the tube is taken at any point along the tube’s length, the circular slice will have the same circumference, diameter, radius and area.
Created by: ryanriggs_90



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