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CD 4505 Literacy

Exam 1 Study Guide

Taxonomies: Three related systems speech, language (including literacy), and communication
Taxonomies: Five language parameters phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics
Taxonomies: Three language domains content, form, use
Taxonomies: Two language levels (sound/word, and sentence/discourse) interacting with four communication modalities (listening, speaking, reading, writing)
Evidence based practice (EBP) the conscientious, explicit, and judicious integration of best available evidence from systematic research, best available evidence internal to clinical practice and best available evidence concerning the preferences of a fully informed patient
Evidence based practice components 1. Basic (high quality) research evidence 2. Clinical knowledge and expertise 3. Patient values and circumstances
Five step approach to EBP: A Ask a question that is relevant to meeting a particular client's or group's needs.
Five step approach to EBP: S Search for available evidence.
Five step approach to EBP: C Critique the quality of the evidence.
Five step approach to EBP: A Apply the evidence to one's own practice.
Five step approach to EBP: E Evaluate effectiveness in terms of outcomes for a particular group.
PICO: P Person, Population, Problem, and Perspectives
PICO: I Intervention
PICO: C Comparison or Contrast
PICO: O Outcomes
Competitive goal setting (negative interdependence): members perceive that they can obtain their goals if, and only if, the others fail to obtain theirs
Individualistic goal setting (no interdependence): actions of one team member are unrelated to those of another
cooperative goal setting (positive interdependence) members perceive that they can attain their goal if and only if the other team members attain theirs
Assessment/Intervention Questions: Background questions General knowledge about a disorder Two essential components Question root (who, what, where, how, why) with a verb A disorder or aspect of a disorder
Assessment/Intervention Questions: Foreground questions Ask for specific knowledge about managing patients with a disorder Have 4 (or 3) essential components
ASHA pyramid: evidence pyramid places types of research study designs in a hierarchy of quality form lower (at the bottom) to higher (at the top)
ethnographic interviewing involves strategic questions to gain perspectives of others
participant observation involves watching and interacting to interpret social-cultural rules for participation and interaction
studying artifacts involves analysis of products for evidence of strengths and needs
Interpreting multiple sources of data involves looking for deeper meanings and points of agreement, then asking informants whether interpretations match perceptions, a process ethnographers called triangulation
phonemic awareness a subcategory of phonological awareness that refers to the ability to detect and manipulate individual phonemes within words
phonemic awareness examples Detecting word with different initial phoneme (odd one out) Taking off initial or final sound (elision or deletion) Switching initial and final sounds (transposition) Segmenting the sounds in a word Blending the sounds in a word
5 language parameters phonology morphology semantics syntax pragmatics
phonology the sound system of language
morphology the system of meaningful units of language
pragmatics the system of appropriate language use in social contexts
syntax the system of grammatical sentence structure. The system of constructing and comprehending sentences and inter-sentential relationships
semantics the meaning system of language
nonlinguistic communicative signals (intentional or not), such as smiles and excitement gestures or fussing and crying
nonverbal another term for nonlinguistic, means technically "without words," spoken or written
Grice's maxims: maxim of quantity provide no more or less information than is needed by your partner to understand your message
Grice's maxims: maxim of quality be truthful and say only what you have reason to believe to be true
Grice's maxims: maxim of relation say only things that are relevant to the topic at hand
Grice's maxims: maxim of manner be organized and avoid vagueness, wordiness or ambiguity
paralinguistic devices incorporate both verbal and nonverbal elements and thus do not fit perfectly in either category.They are closely aligned with the pragmatic system of language.
paralinguistic devices examples include speaking rate, loudness, intonation patterns, and enunciation of linguistically encoded messages to modify meaning (e.g. conveying irony and sarcasm) or highlight new information in an utterance
kinesic devices: emblems convey verbal meaning
kinesic devices: illustrators convey visual spatial info
kinesic devices: affective displays convey emotions
kinesic devices: regulators control turn taking
kinesic devices: adaptors self-oriented, stress reducers
language a complex and dynamic system of conventional symbols that is used in various modes for thought and communication
communication the process of sharing information among individuals; it can involve only language (e.g. communication in an internet chat room), or language, hearing, and speech (e.g. a spoken conversation)
communication's components sender, receiver, medium, and message
sender assumes an active role in formulating ideas into a message the producer of the message that sends it to the receiver
message the formulation of ideas (linguistically encoded and nonverbal)
medium the means of transmission, might be speech, writing, gesture, or some combination of the three
receiver the person who receives the message from the sender and to make sense of the message
Cummin's Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS) functional spoken language competence, which is the first step in acquiring basic competence with any new language
Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP) characterizes higher-level forms of reading and writing and literate forms of spoken discourse
MLU mean length of utterance; a calculation of the number of morphemes per utterance used to estimate the syntactic complexity of children's utterances
speech acts Perlocutionary Illocutionary Locutionary
perlocutionary act - perlocutionary stage 8-10 months; receiver's interpretation of sender's intention
Illocutionary act - illocutionary stage 8-10-18 months; sender's interpretation for the message
locutionary act - locutionary stage 18 months +; sender linguistically encoded message; examples: "It's kind of stuffy in here." "You got your hair cut."
nature versus nurture the relative importance of an individual's innate qualities ("nature, i.e. nativism, or innatism) versus personal experiences ("nuture," i.e. empricism or behaviorism) in determining or causing individual differences in physical and behavioral traits
Seven theoretical perspectives 1. Biomaturational 2. Linguistic 3. Behavioral 4. Cognitive-connectionist 5. Cognitive-constructivist 6. Cognitive-emotional 7. Social-interactionist
Universal grammar (UG) theory suggests that some rules of grammar are hard-wired into the brain, and manifest themselves without being taught
Behavior theory: Echoic exact repetition in which a response is controlled by prior verbal stimulus and maintained by a social reinforcer and possibly a tangible reinforcer
Behavior theory: Mand Request, reinforced by getting the thing requested
Behavior theory: Tact labeling or commenting, reinforced by attention
Behavior theory: Intraverbal verbal response that relates to an item, action, or property that is not present, reinforced by praise
Vygotsky zone of proximal development level of independent performance on a task; level reached when deliberate mediation by a more mature learner makes it possible for the child to be more competent
dendrites processes are afferent (receiving across synapses)
axons processes are efferent (sending across synapses)
word analyzer parietal-temporal region; pulling apart words into consituent syllables and phonemes
automatic decoder occipital-temporal region; recognizing words automatically (especially skilled readers)
phonemic producer inferior frontal lobe; vocalizing words silently or out loud
strategies for changing principles 1 organized whole, and elements with the system are necessarily interdependent (whole to part)
strategies for changing principles 2 complex systems are composed of subsystems (part to whole)
strategies for changing principles 3 systems have features that maintain the stability of their patterns (homeostasis)
strategies for changing principles 4 evolution and change are inherent in the open systems (morphogenesis)
strategies for changing principles 5 causative patterns in a system that are circular than linear ( a1 to b1 to a2 to b2 not a to b to c)
strategies for changing principles 6 the subsystems within a larger system are separated by boundaries, and interactions across boundaries are governed by implicit rules and patterns
system theory systems are resistant to change systems can be divided into subparts systems are always changing subsytems have boundaries subsytems interact in complex causal patterns any system is best understood as a unified whole
peripheral processing skills sensory and motor systems for bringing information in and sending it back out
central processing skills working memory for keeping information active while analyzing it, decoding or encoding it , forming associations, conducting storage and retrieval operations and relating it to multiple levels of meaning
six cognitive-linguistic knowledge systems - three linguistic systems (graphophonemic, syntactic, and semantic), accompanied by world knowledge, pragmatic knowledge, and discourse knowledge
metacognitive strategies conscious (and less conscious) executive decisions to pay attention and to regulate after processes so they will work effectively and efficiently to achieve communicative purposes
input/output modalities stimuli and products
graphophonemic knowledge words; syllable/morpheme; sound-symbol associated
syntactic knowledge sentence reflections; sentence combining; sentence structures; grammatical morphemes
semantic knowledge figurative meaning; event relations; lexical referents
metacognitive strategies reasons and control
world/prior knowledge schemas, categories, inferences
pragmatic knowledge authors intention, audience information, topic management, contextual variation
discourse knowledge scripts, story grammar, text cohesion, formats
Created by: ryanriggs_90



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