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Constitution

TermDefinition
Articles of Confederation (7) While the states were still writing their constitutions, the Continental Congress created a plan for the nation as a whole. It was called the Articles of Confederation. Congress adopted the articles in 1777.
James Madison (6) Influential 36-year-old delegate from Virginia wrote much of the Constitution, and often called the "Father of the Constitution"
Constitutional Convention (5) The aims of the convention was to revise the Article of Confederation. Although, many delegates said that what wouldn't be enough. Eventually, all discussions were secret but one could say whatever they wanted.
Three-Fifths Compromise (4) Congress agreed to a plan called the Three-Fifths Compromise. Each enslaved person would be counted as 3/5 of a free person. The Northern delegates sadly agreed in order to keep the South in the Union. The compromise died when slavery was banned in 1867.
Great Compromise (3) This called for a two house legislature (Congress) with the House of Representatives and Senate. This addressed the issue of how representation from each state would be determined in the national legislature.
Virginia Plan (2) The Virginia Plan called for the central government to consist of three separate branches.The Congress legislative branch would stay, a new judicial branch to interpret the law, and executive branch to carry out the laws. Seats based on pop.
New Jersey Plan (1) June 15, William Paterson of New Jersey brought new plan on behalf of the small states. This New Jersey Plan very different to the Virginia Plan. The plan called for a single house of Congress, with same representation for each state. More powers Congress
Anti-Federalists (16) People that didn't want to ratify the Constitution.
Federalists (15) People that wanted to ratify the Constitution and have a strong, federal government.
George Washington (14) President of the Constitutional Convention.
Unalienable Rights (13) Rights that cannot be taken away such a Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness.
Ratify (12) To approve
Delegates (11) People sent or authorized to represent others.
Repeal (10) To cancel or decline.
Amend (9) To revise, remove or correct any faults or
Preamble (8) The first part of the Constitution, stated the 6 goals of the Constitution.
Slander (22) A spoken statement damaging someone's character
Criminal Court (21) Court that settled cases that had to do with robberies, murders, etc.
Civil Court (20) Court led that settled cases that dealt with more personal matters
Two limitations placed on five freedoms (19) Do not violate others' rights and do not harm others.
Five Freedoms in the first amendment (18) Freedom of speech, press, religion, petition, and assemble.
Bill of Rights (17) The document that states the rights of the people as protection from the abuses of Federal Government.
Items protected from an unwarranted search (28) person's pages, home, possessions, person, and other personal effects
Information that would be on a search warrant (27) Date, suspected find, address, area to be searched, judge's signature
Probable Clause (26) A solid reason to believe that a crime has been committed
Petition (25) To circulate a written statement for the purpose of gaining for or against an issue
Assemble (24) To gather peacefully within a group to discuss issues
Libel (23) A written statement damaging someone's character
Defendant (39) The person accused of the crime
Plaintiff (38) The person bringing the complaint
Double Jeopardy (37) No person can be tried for the same crime twice assuming he was found innocent
Judge's responsibility (36) Determines what the punishment would be for the person on trial (ONLY if there is a guilty verdict)
Trial Jury (35) Decides if the person is guilty or innocent of the crime committed
Grand Jury (34) Examines the evidence against the accused to determine if there is enough evidence to send the case to trial
Circumstantial Evidence (33) Indirect evidence that implies something occurred but doesn't directly prove it
Valid Evidence (32) Direct evidence such as DNA or a witness which could directly link someone to the crime
Indictment (31) A formal change or accusation of a serious crime
Infamous Crime (30) A serious crime that involves jail time from one year to life
Capital Crime (29) A serious crime that involves death penalty as punishment
Cruel and Unusual Punishment (49) fine imposed by the court be excessive for the crime committed
Bail (48) Money provided y the accused to insure that the defendant will appear in court at his appointed hour
Maximum $ amount for a common lawsuit (47) No limit
Minimum $ amount for a common lawsuit (46) $20
Perjury (45) lying under oath in court
Subpoena (44) court order, which forces witnesses for the accused to appear and testify in court whether they want to or not
Unbiased Jury (43) a jury of peers that have not made a judgment of guilt or innocence
Speedy Trial (42) The defendant is tried for the alleged crimes within a reasonable amount of time after being arrested
5 rights under due process of law (41) Trial by Jury Right to a defense (have lawyers defend him) Right to appeal a case Have witnesses Show evidence
Due process of law (40) Legal proceedings are carried out with established rules and principles. A person is entitled to the entire court procedure
Congressional Record (67) After each day in session the "Minutes" of the meeting are published for the public in the Congressional Record - Everything that said is documented.
Quorum (66) Minimum number of members that must be present for official business to take place
Revenue Bills (65) All bills concerning money must begin in the H.O.R. They are called revenue bills.
Bill (64) A proposed law
Speaker of the House (63) The Presiding Officer of the House of Representative that was elected by the House with a majority vote. John Boehner
Illinois district representative (62) Randy Hultgren
Census (61) Voting is determined by the population of the state- a census is taken every 10 years (the first year of the decade)
Qualifications of House of Representatives (60) Must be at least 25 years old Must have been a citizen for at least 7 years Must live in DISTRICT that you represent
The House of Representatives (59) Called the Lower House Has 435 representatives If someone cannot fill their duties as a House member , then the governor calls for a special election to fill a vacancy 435 members, 1 minimum per state1
Governor of Illinois (58) Bruce Rauner
Qualifications of Senate (57) Must be at least 30 years old U.S. citizen for at least 9 years Must live in state that you represent
President Pro-Tempore (56) When Vice President is out of town or unavailable, then the President Pro-Tempore (temporary president) takes over. The President Pro-tempore is elected by the Senate. Patrick Leahy
President (55) Barack Obama
Vice President (54) Joe Biden
Two Illinois Senators (53) Dick Durbin and Mark Kirk
Senate (52) The upper house Consists of 100 people Serve a 6-year-term with 1/3 elected every 2 years 2 Senators per state
Congress (51) The Senate and House of Representatives.. 535 total people
Main Duty of Legislative Branch (50) make our country's laws
Habeas Corpus (80) A prisoner must be presented before a judge to be charged with specific crime or else that prisoner must be released
Treason (79) going against one's country
Elastic Clause (78) Congress can make any laws which are necessary and proper
Implied Powers (77) Powers kept for the states (and people)
Reserved Powers (76) Powers kept for the states (and people)
Concurrent Powers (75) Powers shared by states and federal government
Enumerated Powers (74) Powers that are specifically written in the Constitution
Capitol Building (73) Building that Congress meets up in in Washington D.C.
The role of the Supreme Court in impeachment cases (72) The chief justice presides over trial if the President or Vice President were on trial
The role of Vice President in impeachment cases (71) Serves as judge for trial
The role of the Senate in impeachment cases (70) Holds trial and acts like Trial Jury
The role of the House of Representatives in impeachment cases (69) Begin impeachment proceedings and act like the Grand Jury
Impeachment (68) to formally accuse someone of wrongdoing or misuse of power
Federalism (83) the division of power between the federal government and the states
Bill of Attainder (82) this convicts a person without a trial
Ex Post Facto Laws (81) when you are punished for a crime that wasn't a crime when it was committed
Filibuster (88) When a senator tries to delay the voting of a bill by continuously talking
Joint-Committee (87) makes a compromise on the wording of the bill
Override (86) If the President does not sign the bill, but vetoes it, the two Houses of Congress may try to pass it over the President's veto by the two-thirds vote in each house.
Pocket Veto (85) If the President does not act at all, the bill becomes a law automatically in 10 days, providing Congress is still in session. If Congress should adjourn before that ten days is up, and the President does not act on the bill, it is automatically vetoed.
Veto (84) to reject the bill
Order of Succession (101) President-Barack Obama, Vice President- Joe Biden, Speaker of the House- John Boehner, President Pro-Tempore, Orrin Hatch, Members of the cabinet starting with the Secretary of State- John Kerry
Succession (100) the number of persons coming after one another
Oath of Office including date president assumes his duties of office (99) (January 20th) "I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States."
President's term of office (98) 4 years,and a maximum of 2 terms
Pardon (97) to forgive or excuse (except cases involving impeachment)
Reprieve (96) to delay or postpone (except in impeachment cases)
Duty of the President #5 (95) Head of political party when he is elected
Duty of the President #4 (94) Call Congress into a special session when he feels necessary Recommend a bill
Duty of the President #3 (93) Represents the Unites States when traveling to other countries and meeting foreign leaders when they come to the U.S
Duty of the President #2 (92) To make sure that all of his cabinet, staff, department heads, and other employees are doing their jobs
Duty of the President #1 (91) Makes all decisions regarding the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marines, and Coast Guard- All of the US Military (Commands the National Guard, Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces)
Three Qualifications for President (and Vice President) (90) At least 35 years old, natural born citizen, and lived in the US for at least 14 years.
Main duty of the Executive Branch (89) to enforce and administer our country's laws
Electoral Vote (106) the vote of electors to select the President
# of votes each state receives in electoral college (105) at least 3
Popular vote (104) the vote of the people
Where does the electoral college cast their vote (103) their own states capital buildings
Votes needed to become president (102) at least 270 votes
New Jersey v. T.L.O (123) TLO, a 14-year-old freshman at Piscataway High School in New Jersey, was caught smoking in a school bathroom by a teacher. The prinicipal questioned her and asked to see her purse. 5th & 6th Amendment
Miranda v. Arizona (122) Ernesto Miranda, who had confessed to a crime during police questioning without knowing he had a right to have an attorney present
McCulloch v. Maryland (121) dealt specifically with the right of Congress to create a national bank of the United States, ruling that it was an implied power but not enumerated by the Constitution
Marbury v. Madison (120) the first instance in which a law passed by Congress was declared unconstitutional
Writ of Certiorari (119) a formal request by lawyers to the Supreme Court to hear their case
Unconstitutional Law (118) A law that goes against what is written in the Constitution
Judicial Review (117) When the judicial department checks to see if a law is "unconstitutional." It is the job of the Supreme Court to review the law of our country.
Appellate jurisdiction (116) the power to review a case that has already been heard in a lower court
Original jurisdiction (115) the power to hear legal cases or operate legally with certain boundaries
Who appoints federal judges and who approves federal judges (114) The President
Supreme court's responsibility (113) Decided if actions by lower courts or other government agencies are legal Decide if laws are unconstitutional Review the laws of our country
Appellate court's responsibility (112) the power to review a case that has already been heard in a lower court
District court's responsibility (111) the power to hear legal cases or operate legally with certain boundaries
Judge's qualifications (110) no enumerated qualifications
Judge's term (109) for life
Three types of federal courts (in order, lowest to highest) (108) District, Appellate, and Supreme Courts
Main duty of the judicial branch (107) interpret laws and administer justice
Know who each "checks", including electoral college (125) Executive checks Legislative by vetoing laws Legislative checks Executive by override Judicial Branch checks the other branches by declaring laws unconstitutional Electoral College checks the people
Reason for check & balances (124) to be sure that no one person or group would seize power and control of the American government
Created by: ANTARAM
 

 



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