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Adult Medicine


1. What is the function of WBC? Fight infection
2. What are platelets necessary for? Blood clotting
3. What is the function of RBC? Carry oxygen through body, nourish tissue
4. What are the most abundant Blood cells? RBC
5. What is the RBC concentration of men? 5200,000 per/ mm3
6. RBC conc. for women? 4700,000 per/mm3
7. Most important constituents of RBC? Hgb
8. Components of Hgb molecule? Iron and protein
9. What is erythropoiesis? Actual process of making blood cells
10. What is the RBCs site of origin? Bone marrow
11. Specialty of children bone marrow? The marrow in all bones are enlisted for RBC production
12. Aging person’s RBCs produced in? spine, ribs, pelvis
13. What is the life span of RBCs? 90-120 days
14. What organs are responsible for removal of old RBCs? Liver and spleen
15. Why is iron recycled and returned to bone marrow? To make new cells
16. Is kidney an essential organ in regulation of RBC production? Yes
17. When the body requires an increased oxygen amounts what happens? The kidney triggers the release of the EPO, which acts in the bone marrow to increase the production of RBC
18. What is the definition of anemia? Anemia is characterized by abnormally low number of RBC in circulatory system
19. Is anemia a single disease? No, it is a condition with many possible causes
20. What is iron deficiency anemia? Low iron levels
21. What is an example of megaloblastic anemia? Vitamin deficiency
22. What is hemolytic anemia? Premature destruction of RBC
23. What is myelophthisic anemia? Replacement of normal marrow cells by cancer cells or myelophthisic anemia
24. What is aplastic anemia? Injury to bone marrow
25. Example of an inborn structural defect in RBC? Sickle cell anemia
26. What is anemia of chronic disease? Inhibition of EPO production by immune system deficiency
27. What is sideroblastic anemia? Normal or high levels of iron, but inability to manufacture hgb or make use of Fe
28. What are the 3 most common types of anemia? Fe deficiency, megaloblastic anemia, anemia of chronic disease
29. What are the less common types of anemias? Aplastic, thalassemia, hemolytic anemias, sideroblastic anemias, sickle cell anemia
30. What happens in aplastic anemia? Fat cells replace bone marrow and reduce all of blood cells
31. What are the symptoms of aplastic anemia? In addition to anemic symptoms, it causes bleeding of mucous membranes, skin, gingivitis, and SOB
32. What are the possible causes of apalstic anemia? Virus, self attack of the immune system, chemicals such as benzene or pesticides
33. How is aplastic anemia treated? Transfusions, bone marrow transplantation, immunosuppressant drugs
34. What is thalassemia? Genetic blood disease caused by a defect in the rate of production of hemoglobin.
35. What are the two major forms of anemia? Major and minor
36. What are the other names for the two forms of anemia? Cooley’s anemia, beta thalassemia
37. Thalassemia minor is? More common and milder, pt has a normal life span
38. What is thalassemia major? It is very serious, fortunately rare
39. What groups are predisposed to thalassemia? Men and women equally affected, common in Mediterranean decent, common in families who intermarry
40. What is treatment for minor? Non necessary
41. Treatment for major? Standard therapy is transfusions with deferoxamine (Fe chelation therapy), bone marrow transplantation
42. How is diagnosis confirmed for acquired hemolytic anemia? Marked increase in RBC production by marrow
43. What happens in (acquired) autoimmune hemolytic anemia? Antibodies produced by the immune system damage RBCs
44. What is the cause of autoimmune hemolytic anemia? Unknown
45. What are the causes of other acquired hemolytic anemia? Toxins, snake/insect bites, malaria, transfusions, post surgical complications, drugs
46. How is acquired hemolytic anemia treated? Corticosteroids
47. Characteristics of inherited hemolytic anemia? Sphere shaped RBCs which have difficulty circulating through spleen
48. What are the defects of RBCs in inherited hemolytic anemia? Hgb abnormalities, membrane defects, and enzyme deficiencies
49. Inherited hemolytic anemia can be triggered by what? Fava beans, more likely and more seriously in males than females.
50. Treatments for inherited hemolytic anemias? Blood transfusions, immunoglobulin, spleenectomy
51. Are normal RBCs made in sideroblastic anemia? No
52. What are the symptoms of sideroblastic anemia? In addition to anemic symptoms, jaundice, spleenomegaly, hepatomegaly, constitutional symtoms
53. What could trigger sideroblastic anemia? Childhood, infection, trauma, pregnancy
54. What is the etiology for sideroblastic anemia? Inherited or acquired after excessive alcohol use, certain medications, chloramphenicol, cancers, rheumatoid arthritis, more common in elderly
55. Treatment of sideroblastic anemia? Deferoxamine is used to remove iron. Effectiveness is increased when ascorbate is added to regimen. Folate and pyridoxine are used, but their effectiveness is under question
56. How is sickle cell anemia described? Serious, life threatening, inherited disease
57. Characteristics of RBCs in sickle cell anemia? Sickle shaped cell, inflexible, has impaired ability to crawl through vessels, short life span (10-20days) causes anemia.
58. What are the symptoms of sickle cell anemia? In addition to the anemic symptoms, joint and bone pain, infections, and heart failure can occur
59. What ethnic groups carry sickle cell genes? AA, Indian, some Spanish speaking countries, Mediterranean region
60. Treatment for sickle cell anemia? Clotrimazole, miconazole, enalapril, corticosteroids for pain, bone marrow transplant
61. What could be other causes of anemias? Cancer treatments such as drugs and radiation, disorders not related to inflammation or bleeding include AIDS, kidney failure, hypothyroidism, and leukemia
62. What are the principles of diagnosing anemia? i. establish DDx from CBC and blood film ii. Direct clinical inquiries iii. Use lab investigations to confirm if necessary
63. What 4 values of CBC is looked at to detect blood disease? Hgb, MCV, Leukocytes, platelets
64. 2 causes of all anemias? Underproduction or excessive loss/ destruction of erythrocytes
65. Rare cause of anemia? Increased plasma volume
66. What is MCV? Mean Corpuscular Volume, most useful initial approach that measures RBC cell size
67. reduced MCV? Microcytic
68. increased MCV? macrocytic
69. normal MCV? normocytic
Created by: sap_213