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Lang Dev Exam 2

CD 4401 Lang Dev Exam 2 Study Guide

TermDefinition
Child-directed speech (CDS) The talk directed to children by others, including parents and other caregivers.
Complex syntax Grammatically well-formed sentences containing phrases, clauses, and conjunctions, which are used to organize the internal structures of the sentences.
Conversational schema Also called the conversational framework. Framework of a conversation, including initiating and establishing a topic, engaging in a series of turns that maintain the topic, and resolving and closing the topic.
Grammatical morphemes Also called inflectional morphemes. Small units of language added to words to allow grammatical inflection of the words. Examples: the plural -s, the past tense -ed, and the present progressive -ing.
Joint attention/reference Attention on a mutual object. For infants, maintaining joint attention requires them to coordinate their attention between the social partner and the object. Prerequisite to development of a conversational schema.
Mean length of utterance (MLU) A calculation of the number of morphemes per utterance used to estimate the syntactic complexity of children's utterances.
Phonotactic Rules The rules of a person's native language that allow infants to parse the speech stream. Example: In english, the phoneme sequence /g/ + /z/ does not usually start a word but can end it (dogs).
Register Stylistic variations in language that are used in different situations. Example: How you vary your language form, content, and use when making a request of your best friend versus when making a request of your professor.
Semantic network A network in which the entries in a person's mental lexicon are stored according to their connective ties.
Simple syntax Grammatically well-informed sentences containing simple noun phrases and verb structures.
Vocabulary spurt Occurs near the end of the second year of a child's life, when he or she transitions from a slow stage of vocabulary development to a rapid stage of development.
Phonological development involves acquiring the rules of language that govern the sound structure of syllables and words. Infants "break into" the phonology of their language by using a range of tactics, including attending to prosodic and phonotactic cues.
Phonemic inventory an inventory of all the distinctive sounds or phonemes in a given language.
Phonological awareness The ability to focus on the sounds that make up syllables and words through implicit or explicit analysis. A type of metalinguistic ability important to emergent literacy.
Morphological development Describes internalization of the rules of language that govern word structure. Key building blocks include grammatical and derivational morphology.
Grammatical morphemes used to inflect words for grammatical purposes; they include the use of past, future, and present tense markings of verbs and plural and possessive markings of nouns
Derivational morphemes Prefixes and suffixes added to root words to create derived words, used to modify root words to change their meaning or class.
Syntactic development internalization of the rules of language that govern how words are organized into sentences.
Three main building blocks of syntactic development (1) Increase in utterance length - (MLU) - (as MLU increases, the internal syntactic sophistication of sentences increases to include the use of articles, conjunctions, and auxilary verbs)
Three main building blocks of syntactic development (2) The use of different sentence modalities. (During early and later childhood, children use a range of sentence types, including the declarative, negative, and interrogative.
Three main building blocks of syntactic development (3) The development of complex syntax, in which children begin to use a variety of phrase types and coordinate clausal structures to produce complex and compound sentences.
Semantic development's three major tasks 1. Acquiring a mental lexicon of about 60,000 words between infancy and adulthood. 2. Acquiring words rapidly during word-learning opportunities. 3. Organizing an efficient semantic network so that entries can be readily retreived.
Mental lexicon the volume of words a person understands and uses, includes a variety of word types, which for young children includes specific nominals, general nominals, action words, modifiers, and personal-social words
Expressive lexicon The volume of words a person uses a "mental dictionary."
Receptive Lexicon The volume of words a person understands.
Pragmatic development acquisition of rules governing how language is used for social purposes
Pragmatic development major building blocks 1. Developing a range of communication functions. 2. Acquiring conversational skills. 3. Becoming sensitive to extralinguistic cues in communicative interactions.
Development of communication functions (1) involves learning how to communicate "differently in different situations according to the circumstances and communication goals of the participants."
Development of communication functions (2) Throughout childhood, children develop a range of functions and become increasingly sophisticated at using language as a social tool.
Development of conversation skills (1) children's conversational skills emerge in early photo-conversations with primary caregivers; through these interactions, children develop a conversational schema specifying the organizational structures of conversations.
Development of conversation skills (2) By late childhood, children are active conversationalists, able to enter conversations skillfully and navigate a topic across many turns.
Development of sensitivity to extralinguistic cues such as facial expression, posture, intonation, and loudness - also emerges in childhood. By the end of preschool, children can readily vary their extralinguistic cues for different communicative situations.
Vocabulary spurt chart, Figure 3.5, pg. 100 The graphs display lexical development featuring vocabulary spurt compared with gradual linear growth. The first shows an inflection point, which is the point in a vocabulary spurt that differentiates between the slow and rapid stages of vocabulary
Vocabulary spurt chart, Figure 3.5 pg. 100 development. However, by age seven, both children still learn the same amount of words.
The 5 Semantic Taxonomy (1) 1. Specific nominals, which refer to a specific object (e.g. pole, block) 2. General nominals, which refer to all members of a category (e.g. newspapers, these, coats)
The 5 Semantic Taxonomy (2) 3. Action words, which describe specific actions (e.g. turn around), social-action games (e.g. hide and seek), and action inhibitors (e.g. never) 4. Modifiers, which describe properties and qualities (e.g. small, yours)
The 5 Semantic Taxonomy (3) Personal-Social words, which describe affective states and relationships (e.g. want, feel, please)
Why is context important to word learning? (1) Children's initial and subsequent exposures to a new word vary considerably according to the contextual conditions in which the word is embedded.
Why is context important to word learning? (2) Children draw on many sources of contextual information to develop and refine their internal representations of novel words.
Why is context important to word learning? (3) In short, to develop a representation of a new word, children use various tools to draw on information from the linguistic and extralinguistic contexts in which the word is embedded.
Main components of learning p. 100-101 1. Concept represented by the word 2. Phonological form of the word 3. Contextual conditions at initial exposure
Present progressive -ing 19-28 months; example: "Mommy eating."
Plural -s 27-30 months; example: "Baby shoes."
Preposition: in 27-30 months; "Hat in box."
Preposition: on 31-34; "hat on chair."
Possessive 's 31-34 months; "Baby's ball."
Regular past tense -ed 43-46 months; "Kitty jumped."
Irregular past tense 43-46 months; "We ate."
Regular third person singular -s 43-46 months; "Mommy drives."
Articles a, the, an 43-46 months; "The car."
Contractible copula be 43-46 months; "She's happy."
Contractible auxiliary 47-50 months; "She's coming."
Uncontractible copula be 47-50 months; "We were here."
Uncontractible auxiliary 47-50 months; "She was coming."
Irregular third person 47-50 months; "She did it."
MLU Stage I (textbook) MLU range (midpoint): 1.0-1.99 (1.75); single-word utterances predominate. Grammatical inflections not used
MLU Stage II (textbook) MLU range (midpoint): 2.0-2.49 (2.25); Two - and three-word utterances predominate. Grammatical inflections emerge (e.g., present progressive marker, plural marker). Emergence of grammar as child follows basic word-order patterns (e.g., Agent + Action:
MLU Stage II (textbook-continued) "Mommy go." Agent + Action + Object: Dee Dee ate bone.")
MLU Stage III (textbook) MLU range (midpoint): 2.5-2.99 (2.75); Emergence of different sentence modalities: yes-no questions, wh- questions, imparatives, and negatives
MLU Stage IV (textbook) MLU range (midpoint: 3.0 -3.99 (3.5); complex sentences emerge to feature multiclause sentences, such as object-noun phrase complements
MLU Stage IV (textbook-continued) ("This is the one I made."), embedded wh- questions (That's why she went outside.") and embedded relative clauses ("Clifford, who was so good, is still waiting.")
MLU Stage V (textbook) MLU range (midpoint): 4.01; Emergence of coordinating conjunctions and adverbial conjuncts ("I am tired because I didn't take a nap;" I'm helping Daddy do the dishes and make dinner.")
Broca's Area Named after the French physician Paul Broca. A region of the left frontal lobe of the cerebrum, important for the fine coordination of speech output.
Central Nervous System (CNS) The brain and the spinal cord
Frontal lobe The largest of six lobes in the cerebrum. Resides in the most anterior part of the brain, behind the forehead. Activates and controls both fine and complex motor activites and controls executive functions.
Frontal lobe (continued) Includes the prefrontal cortex, primary motor cortex, and premotor cortex.
Heschl's Gyrus Named after the Austrian anatomist Richard L. Heschl. A small left temporal lobe region that appears to be specialized for processing speech, particularly its temporal aspects.
Myelin The coating sheathing each neuron. This sheath contributes to the rapid delay of nerve impulses, particularly within white matter, and protects the neuron.
Neural plasticity The malleability of the central nervous system, or the ability of the sensory motor systems to organize and reorganize by generating new synaptic connections or by using existing synapses for alternative means.
Neurons The billions of highly specialized cells that compose the nervous system.
Parietal lobes Two of the six lobes of the cerebrum. They reside posterior to the frontal lobe on the left and right sides (above the ears).
Sensitive Period With regard to the human brain, a time frame of development during which frame of development during which a particular aspect of neuroanatomy or neurophysiology that underlies a given sensory or motoric capacity undergoes growth or change.
Sensitive period (continued) A critical window of opportunity for development. Example: Deprivation of visual input during the first six weeks of the life of a kitten (the critical window) results in permanent blindness.)
Synapse The site where two neurons meet. For the two neurons to communicate the nerve impulse must cross this.
Temporal lobes Two of the six lobes of the cerebrum. They sit posterior to the frontal lobe, but inferior to the parietal lobes (behind the ears). They contain the functions for processing auditory information and language comprehension.
Temporal lobes (continued) Include Heschl's gyrus and Wernike's area.
Wernike's Area Named after the German neurologist and psychiatrist Karl Wernike. Also, called the receptive speech area. Resides in the superior portion of the left temporal lobe near the intersection of the parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes -
Wernike's Area (continued) or parieto-occiptiotemporal junction. Critical for language comprehension.
Neuroscience a branch of science that focuses on the anatomy and physiology of the nervous system, described, respectively, as neuroanatomy and neurophysiology.
Human nervous system contains 10 the central nervous system (CNS) (the brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system, comprising the cranial and spinal nerves, which carry information inward to and outward from the brain and spinal cord
Peripheral nervous system (PNS) The cranial and spinal nerves, which carry information inward to and outward from the brain and spinal cord.
Neuroanatomy the study of the anatomical structures of the nervous system
Neurophysiology the study of how these anatomical structures of the nervous system work together as a complex unit and as separate distinct biological units
Longitudinal fissure a long cerebral crevice (or fissure) that separates the brain into left and right hemispheres
Corpus Callosum a band of fibers that connects the two hemispheres, serving as a conduit for communication between the hemispheres
Occipital lobe the site of visual perception and processing
Connectionist model mental phenomena can be described by interconnected networks of simple and often uniform units; models that attempt to represent the computational architecture of the brain as it processes various types of information, particularly that which is specific
Connectionist model (continued) to higher order cognition, such as reasoning and problem solving. According to such models, information processing within the brain involves a network of distributed processors that interact with one another by means excitatory and inhibitory connections
Current brain research results suggest that most higher level cognitive functions, including that of language, involve numerous brain areas in their execution
Inflection point The point in vocabulary spurt that differentiates between the slow and the rapid stages of vocabulary development
Experiece - expectant brain plasticity changes in the brain structure that occur as a result of normal experiences.
Experience-dependent brain plasticity Brain modification that results from highly specific types of experiences
Semantics Three Main Findings 1. Semantic knowledge is a distributed modality 2. Semantic knowledge is left lateralized 3. Some aspects of semantic knowledge improve right-hemisphere processing
Phonetic module According to some experts, a specialized processor that is designed specifically for processing the phonetic segments of speech
Willful attention
Created by: ryanriggs_90