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Earth's Materials

Unit 1: Structure of Earth and Rocks

TermDefinition
Sedimentary Rock Type of rock that forms when sediments are compacted and cemented together.
Igneous Rock Type of rock formed when magma or lava cools and/or crystallizes.
Metamorphic Rock Type of rock formed when heat or pressure change the composition and/or form of igneous, sedimentary or other metamorphic rock.
Compaction Process of packing together sediments. Second step in creating a sedimentary rock.
Sediments Loose materials, such as sand, and the remains of once living organism that are compacted together to make a sedimentary rock.
Lava Molten rock that flows from volcanoes onto Earth's surface.
Magma Hot, melted rock material beneath the Earth's surface.
Organic Contains the element carbon; comes from a living thing. Organic sedimentary rocks contain pieces of once living things.
Clastic Sedimentary rocks made up of sediments such as sand and pebbles.
Foliated Term that describes the wavy bands of minerals in metamorphic rocks. Created mostly by pressure.
Non-Foliated Term that describes a metamorphic rock without wavy bands of minerals. Non-foliated rocks have a grainy texture and tiny crystals. Created mostly by heat.
Extrusive igneous rock Rock that forms when magma cools quickly on Earth's surface.
Intrusive igneous rock Rock that contains large crystals and forms when magma cools slowly beneath Earth's surface.
Weathering and erosion Processes that breaks down larger rock into smaller and smaller pieces called sediments and move sediments to one location. First step in creating a sedimentary rock.
The Rock Cycle Model that describes how rocks slowly change from one form to another at different places in or around Earth over time.
Heat and Pressure Process that changes any rock into a metamorphic rock. Heat comes from deep within the Earth from contact with magma. Pressure comes from the rock layers above, and from tectonic plates moving.
Convection current The transfer of heat from the core that causes magma in the mantle to rise towards the Earth's surface where it cools, becomes more dense and sinks back down towards the core creating a current.
Crust Top layer of the Earth that contains the lithosphere and is broken up into pieces called tectonic plates.
Lithosphere Region consisting of the crust and plates of Earth.
Asthenosphere The upper part of the mantle made of very thick magma below the lithosphere which plates "float" on.
Density How close together the atoms are in an object are. More dense objects sink, less dense objects float or rise. Warmer liquids become less dense.
Mantle Thickest layer of the Earth under the crust and lithosphere that is made of magma. Convection currents occur in this layer which moves the crust of the Earth.
Magma Molten rock underground
Lava Molten rock above ground
Outer core The third main layer of the Earth that is made of liquid iron and nickel and is hotter in temperature than the mantle.
Inner core Hottest part of the Earth in the center that is made of solid iron and nickel.
Cooling The process of going from a liquid to a solid. Creates igneous rock.
Melting The process of turning a solid into a liquid. Turns any rock type into magma or lava.
Created by: Mrstoy