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Foreman/Kerley wk3,4

ions, valence electrons, reactivity

atomic number the number of protons in the nucleus of one atom of the element; identifies the element
energy levels the "layers" around the nucleus where electrons may be found; a state in which matter can exist with a certain amount of energy and distinct from other states with different amounts of energy.
valence electrons the electrons in the outermost energy level of an atom -- they influence how an element will react with other substances
reactivity rate (speed) at which a chemical substance tends to undergo a chemical reaction; significantly influenced by valence electrons of the reacting substances
outermost energy level determines the chemical properties of the atom because of the "rule of 8"; also called the valence shell
net charge the sum of negative and positive charges within the atom; determines the overall charge of the atom
ion an atom after a loss or gain of electrons; it now has an overall net charge (positive or negative)
metal most elements; typically solid, shiny, malleable, and good conductors of heat and electricity
nonmetal elements typically not shiny, usually a gas or brittle solid, not malleable, and poor conductors of heat and electricity
proton a positively-charged subatomic particle of the nucleus of an atom that contributes to the mass of the atom
electron a negatively-charged subatomic particle that orbits the atomic nucleus
cation an atom with a positive charge; it has lost one or more electrons
anion an atom with a negative charge; it has gained one or more electrons
Created by: foremanh71