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Unit 1B Honors

Ions, Valence Electrons, Reactivity 8th Grade Honors

atomic number the number of protons in the nucleus of one atom; identifies the element
energy levels (shells) the "layers" around the nucleus where electrons may be found; a state in which matter can exist with a certain amount of energy and distinct from other states with different amounts of energy.
valence electrons the electrons in the outermost energy level of an atom -- they influence how an element will react with other substances
reactivity rate (speed) at which a chemical substance tends to undergo a chemical reaction; determined mainly by valence electrons of the reacting substances
outermost energy level determines the chemical properties of the atom because of the "rule of 8"; also called the valence shell
net charge the sum of negative and positive charges within the atom
ion an atom after a loss or gain of electrons; it now has an overall net charge (positive or negative)
metal typically solid, shiny, malleable, and good conductors of heat and electricity
nonmetal typically not shiny, usually a gas or brittle solid, not malleable, and poor conductors of heat and electricity
proton a positively-charged subatomic particle of the nucleus of an atom that contributes to the mass of the atom
electron a negatively-charged subatomic particle that orbits the atomic nucleus
cation an atom with a positive charge; it has lost one or more electrons
anion an atom with a negative charge; it has gained one or more electrons
metalloid elements that have some properties of both metals and nonmetals; located on the "steps" on the PTE
isotope a non-typical version of an atom that has a different number of neutrons and therefore a different mass
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