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Chapter 2 Questions

QuestionAnswer
Define matter anything that has weight and takes up space
List the four most abundant elements in the human body oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen
Explain why a complete atom is electrically neutral the number of electrons outside the nucleus equals the number of protons
Distinguish between atomic number and atomic weight atomic number is the number of protons; atomic weight is the number of protons and neutrons
Define isotope atoms that have the same atomic number but different atomic weights
Explain how electrons are distributed within the electron shells of atoms first shell-2, second shell-8, third shell-8
An ionic bond forms when ions with opposite charges attract
A covalent bond forms when atoms share electrons
Explain how a hydrogen bond forms the attraction of the positive hydrogen end of a polar molecule to the negative nitrogen or oxygen end of another polar molecule
Define electrolyte, acid, base, and salt electrolyte-substances that release ions in water/// acid- substance that releases hydrogen ions///base-substance that releases ions that can combine with hydrogen ions///salt-substance formed by the reaction between and acid and a base
Explain pH and how to use the pH scale
Distinguish between inorganic and organic chemicals organic have carbon and hydrogen///inorganic are all others
Distinguish between elctrolytes and nonelectrolytes electrolytes are inorganic substances that dissolve in water///nonelectrolytes are organic compounds that dissolve in water and do not release ions
Describe the functions of water and oxygen in the human body transports chemicals and oxygen///both used for transport
List several ions that cells require and identify their functions Sodium, Chloride, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphate, Carbonate, Bicarbonate, Sufate///play roles in metabolism, helping maintain proper water concentrations, pH, blood clotting, bone development, energy transfer in cells, etc
List at least three functions of proteins structural materials, energy sources, and hormones
Identify the four levels of protein structure primary, secondary, tertiary, and quarternary
Describe the general characteristics of nucleic acids consists of a 5 carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and one of several nitrogen-containing organic bases called nitrogenous bases
Created by: wmisaacharris