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Lang Dev. Exam 1

Language Development CD 4401 Exam 1

TermDefinition
Language a "system of conventional spoken or written symbols used by people in a shared culture to communicate with one another."
Major Domains of language Form, content, use
Five remarkable features of language acquisition rate, universality, species specificity, semanticity, productivity
Language difference The variability among language users. Example: Girls tend to speak earlier than boys do.
Language disorder A significant difficulty with the development of language mostly long-standing difficulties with form, content, and use or that may cause a delay in achievement of certain language milestones
Communication The process of sharing information among individuals. It can involve language (Internet chat room) or language, hearing, and speech (spoken conversation)
Communication breakdowns Communication problems that occur when receivers do not attend to the feedback.
Content Synonymous with semantics. The meaning of language. The words used and the meaning behind them. One of the three language domains.
Form How words, sentences, and sounds are organized and arranged to convey content. One of the three language domains.
Intentional communication Also called iconic communication. Communication that is relatively more precise in intent than symbolic communication, but unlike symbolic communication the relationship between the communicative behavior and its referent is not arbitrary.
Modularity A cognitive science theory about how the human mind is organized within the brain structures. It contends that the human brain contains a set of highly specific modules - or regions developed to process specific types of information.
Morphemes The smallest units of language that carry meaning. they are combined to create words. Example: pre + school + s = preschools the smallest grammatical unit which cannot be separated from the word w/o changing the meaning of the word
Phoneme The smallest unit of sound that can signal a difference in meaning. In the production of syllables and words, a series of phonemes are strung together. Examples: /m/ + /a/ = "ma"
Speech The neuromuscular process by which humans turn language into a sound signal that is transmitted through the air (or another medium as a telephone line to a receiver.)
Speech perception How the person processes speech and language. The ability to understand the sounds and words of a native language.
Use Synonymous with pragmatics. How language is used in interactions with other people to express personal and social needs. One of the three domains of language.
Symbolic communication Also called referential communication occurs when an individual communicates about a specific unity (an object or event), and the relationship between the entity and its referent (e.g. a word) is arbitrary.
Linguistic feedback feedback that includes speaking, such as saying "I totally agree, I hear what you are saying," or "Wait, I don't get it." It also includes vocalizing, such as saying "mm-hmm" or "uh-oh."
Extralinguistic beyond the scope of language or linguistic content
Universality The idea that all persons around the world have a cognitive infrastructure that they apply to the task of learning language.
Morphology The rules of language governing organization of words - how words are structured/put together
Syntax The rules of language governing the internal organization of sentences (word order)
Phonology The rules of language governing sounds used to make syllables and words
Pragmatics the rules governing how language is used for social purposes.
Paralinguistic feedback The use of pitch, loudness, and pauses, all of which are superimposed over linguistic feedback, to relay information to a sender about his or her message
Metalinguistic ability to think and talk about language; ability to judge language correctness/appropriateness
Free morpheme can stand alone with meaning
Bound morpheme must be attached to a free morpheme or other bound morphemes
Semantics the system of language with rules governing the meaning of content of words or grammatical units
Lexicon total amount of words a person knows
World knowledge an individual's autobiographical and experimental understanding and memory of particular events which includes the cultural interpretation of this knowledge
Word knowledge word and symbol definitions based on an individuals world knowledge
Language sample analysis (LSA) used throughout children's toddler and preschool years in order to study their language abilities as well as determine the presence of a language disorder
SALT Systematic Analysis of Language Transcriptions; an electronic format that provides an instant analysis at all language levels
Results of SALT Analysis An accurate measure of Vocabulary, morpheme use, Syntactic structure use, discourse ability, rate of speech, fluency measures
Types of language samples Conversation; Narrative; Expository/informational discourse
Applied Research studying language development to test different approaches and practices that pertain to real-world settings or to address specific problems in society and to inform practices relevant to language development
Basic Research also called theoretical research. Studying language development primarily to generate and refine the existing knowledge base
Enrichment The process through which teachers, clinicians, and other adults provide children, adolescents, and adults with an enhanced language-learning environment that builds on existing skills and promotes the development of new and more advanced language skills.
Language Acquisition Device (LAD) Professor of linguistics Noam Chomsky's innate, species-specific module dedicated to language and not other forms of learning. That infants have the innate ability to acquire language during their infancy.
Normative Research Studies in which experts compile data from individuals on a certain aspect of language development and from these data determine and chart the ages (or grades) by which children typically meet certain milestones
Operant Conditioning A concept in B.F. Skinner's behaviorist theory that describes how behaviors are shaped by responses to the behaviors. The result is that behaviors that are reinforcers become stronger and those that are punished become suppressed.
Prevention To inhibit language difficulties from emerging and thus reduce the need to resolve such difficulties later in life. One of three direct applications of language theory and research to practice.
Theory Descriptive statements that provide stable explanations for a given phenomenon
Universal Grammar (UG) The system of grammatical rules and constraints that are consistent among all world languages. Proposed by the linguist, Noam Chomsky, is a nature inspired theory of second language acquisition.
Use-inspired Research A type of basic research that concentrates on building connections between theory and practice.
Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) A concept in Vygotskian theory that describes the difference between a child's actual developmental level (determined through independent problem solving) and his or her potential developmental level (determined by problem solving and collaboration).
Evidence Based Practice (EBP) refers to "an approach in which current, high-quality research evidence is integrated with scientific inquiry, practitioner expertise, and client preferences and values into the process of making clinical decisions."
Phonological Awareness the ability to focus on the sounds that make up syllables and words through implicit or explicit analysis. A type of metalinguistic ability important to emergent literacy.
Nurture inspired theories often called empiricist theories and they rest on the notion that humans gain all knowledge through experience
Nature-inspired theories Called nativist theories, generally hold that much knowledge is innate and genetically transmitted rather than learned by experience.
Behavior Theory-Nature Language is a subset of learned behaviors; -operant conditioning; language is based on modeling, imitation, practice, reinforcement; Emphaisis on the form of language, grammatical structures
Psycholinguistic Theory - Syntax-Chomsky,Lenneberg, McNeill - Generative or Nativist - nature Emphasis on language form; Innate capacity for language; Biological basis for language; Linguistic process occurs on two levels: -phrase structure rules (universal) -Transformational rules (not universal); Languages have a finite set of rules
Constituents noun and verb phrases
Deep Structure the idea/meaning
Surface Structure the syntactic structure that represents that meaning
Psycholinguistic Theory: A semantic/Cognitive Model -Foder,Katz, Fillmore, and Chafe (1960's) questioned the validity of the syntax - only theory of language processing and believed that semantics holds a strong impact in the structure of syntax and; therefore, language development.
Case Grammar a generative system that can explain the influence of semantics on the syntactic structure and -specifies the semantic relationships that determine that structure. (thing and an action or action on a thing)
Case a specific semantic function for certain noun phrases - only a limited number of nouns would be appropriate in a given structure; -can be said to address surface structure - (how we put words together)
Case function marked by word order and is similar to Chomsky's theory of transformational grammar in that the semantic cases form a structure that provides a basis for syntax (the words/order).
7 major universal cases Agentive, Dative, Experiencer, Factitive, Instrumental, Locative, Objective
Constructionist - Sociolinguistic Theory Does not focus on the structural aspects of language; Sociolinguistic analysis centers on the communication unit required to convey meaning; Sociolinguists concentrate on the underlying reasons or social/communicative functions of language
Cognitive hypothesis of language acquisition children's early language utterances appear to be expressions of perceived semantic relationships as opposed to being expressions of innate pre-programmed syntactic relationships among language elements
Speech-Act Theory the speech act is a unit of communication that conveys the speaker's conceptual representations and intentions (point to-intent: what is it?); a linguistic unit that can be divided into 2 elements: propositional force; illocutionary force
Intrapersonal function (internal language) is used for memory, problem solving, and concept development
Interpersonal function of language is communication (between people)
Propositional force (speech act theory) conceptual content, meaning
Illocutionary force (speech act theory) attitude or intention
Primitive Speech Act (PSA) an utterance consisting formally of a single act or a single prosodic sound-information pattern which functions to convey intention before sentences are acquired (questions, comments, or directive)
Nine Categories of Primitve Speech Act (PSA) Labeling, repeating, answering, requesting action, requesting answer, calling, greeting, protesting, and practicing
Three developmental stages of early communication perlocutionary; illocutionary; locutionary
Perlocutionary (speech act) behaviors are undifferentiated/unidentified; before gestures are used; acts are starting to occur;
Illocutionary (speech act) use of conventional gestures and vocalization
Locutionary (speech act) words convey intentions
Two toddler generative systems segmentation and topic-comment structure (these two can occur at the same time) (child response is important)
Segmentation utterances are generated regarding the situation/activity
Topic-comment structure the child establishes the topic, object, or event, and then provides information
Emergentism (Emergent Theory) Asserts that language is a function of the brain's solution to exchanging a complicated set of meanings between people via a limited speech channel. Grammar is the brain's solution to this problem.
Language sample utterances separated into individual communication units or c units
Communication units (c units) consists of an independent clause and any of its modifiers, such as a dependent clause. It can include incomplete sentences and sentence fragments.
Derivational (bound morphemes) prefixes and suffixes
Inflectional (bound morphemes) plural s, possessive 's, -ing, -ed
Hearing/audition the perception of sound, which involves both general auditory perception and speech perception
acoustics the study of sound
Frequency pitch; how fast the particles move back and forth
Intensity how far apart the particles move when they move back and forth or the loudness of sound
Coarticulation The overlapping of phonemes during human speech
Dialects Regional or social variations of a language that differ from one another in terms of their pronunciation, vocabulary, and grammar
allophones The subtle variations of phonemes that occur as a result of contextual influence on how phonemes are produced in different words.
Basic language sample measures Productive measures, fluency measures, lexical measures, morphological/syntactic measures
Productive measures Number of Utterances; Total number of words
Fluency measures maze words as % of total words; - Fillers (um, huh); - Repetitions (She, she ran out.); *including partial repetitions; (He ra* ran out of the room.); -Revisions (She, he was happy.)
Lexical measures Number of different words; Type token ratio (same words)
Morphological/Syntactic Measures Mean length of utterance (MLU) (morpheme or word); Percent Correct grammatical morphemes
Evaluating vocabulary components Grammatical categories, word root table, omissions - words and morphemes, errors - words and utterances, coded as errors
[EO:] overgeneralization errors; C He failed [EO: fell] down. (attach code to word)
[EW:] other word - level errors; C That boy were [EW: was] jumping (attach code to word)
[EU] utterance level error C Why this thing not work [EU]? (space between word and code)
Verb error [EV] That boy were [EV: was] scared.
Pronoun error [EP] Him [EP:he] is my friend.
Extraneous word [EX] After that the dog that [EX] jump/ed out.
Nonspecific word [NSW] That thingie [NSW] is funny.
SALT Analysis procedures (Content Analysis) Transcript summary, Standard measures, word an morpheme summary, word root tables, bound morpheme table, standard word list, grammatical categories
SALT analysis procedures (database comparison sets) Age-set at + or - 6 months; Grade; Gender; Entire Transcript; Or start of utterance segment
Joint attention or shared hindrance the achievement of a common referent - attention on common object or event, with a sequence of behaviors such as eye contact, calling child's name, pointing, naming - a social interaction
Usage-based Theory (Tomasello) Nurture inspired: major tenets (textbook) language is learned like anything else; children attend to and understand other people's intentions and then imitate other persons' intentional communicative actions to learn language; joint attention, intention reading
Connectionist theories (Rumelhart & McClelland) Nature or nurture inspired Language is organized in a network containing nodes and connections, nodes; The network of nodes and connections undergoes constant transformation in response to language input; connections
Universal brain born with capacity to learn language
SALT program of analysis components Header, Body of Sample, Analysis options
C Child; client
E Examiner
Punctuation (LSA) Utterances need to be identified with correct ending punctuation and words need to be defined by spaces on each side; six symbols - for all utterances
. period for statement, comment. Never use a period for any other reason (e.g., abbreviation)
! Surprise or explanation
? Question
~ intonation prompt - E And then you have to~
^ interrupted utterance where speaker does not complete the utterance (e.g., E So which one ^........C Hey I like this one.)
> Abandoned utterance where the speaker does not complete the utterance but was not interrupted (e.g., C I don't>.....C What is that one?)
Bound morphemes (LSA) use /
/s plural (no matter the phonemic sound
/z possessive (but not possessive pronouns e.g. hers, yours)
/ed past tense (e.g., love/ed) predicate adjectives are not slashed
/3s third person singular verb but irregular forms are not slashed (e.g. goes=go/3s, tell/3s, does=do/3s
/ing verb inflection, but not a gerund (used as a noun e.g., go/ing, run/ing, went swimming)
/n't, /'t negative contractions. Irregular forms are not slashed (e.g., can/'t does/n't, won't
Omissions partial words, omitted words, ommitted bound morphemes insert an asterisk (*)
Transcription of words Spell the words as they should be spelled. Disregard articulation errors.
X unintelligible word
XX unintelligible segment of undermined length
XXX unintelligible for an entire utterance
Mazes words that do not contribute meaning to the sentence
Filled pauses um, uh, ah, huh use parentheses: () C (um) he is (uh) at home
Repetitions use parentheses: () C He is (ou*) out of the house. C (She) she is drinking (the) the water
Revisions use parentheses: () C (She) the dog is in the house. C The dog is (out of the) in the house.
Behaviorist theory (Skinner) - Nurture inspired: major tenets (textbook) Language is like any other human behavior and it does not reflect any special innate endowment children learn language through operant conditioning and shapingl some verbal behaviors are reinforced and others are surpessed. Complex behaviors - in sequence
Social-interactionist (vygotsky) - Nurture inspired: major tenets (textbook) Languguage emerges through social interaction with peers and adults. Language skills move from a social plane to a psychological plane. Initialy, language and cognition are intertwined processes, but they become separate capibilites by age 2 years
Cognitive theory (Piaget) - Nurture inspired: major tenets (textbook) Children's cognitive development precedes their language development, and children's speech begins as egocentric because children view the world from their own perspective
Cognition hypothesis (Piaget) Children's cognitive development precedes their language development
Egocentric speech (Piaget) children's speech begins as egocentric because children can view the world from their own perspective.
Intentionality model (Bloom) Nurture inspired: major tenets (textbook) The tension between the desire to communicate intentions to other people and the effort required to communicate these intentions drives language development; intentionality
Competition model (MacWhinney) Nurture inspired: major tenets (textbook) Repeated exposure to reliable language input strengthens children's "correct" representations of the morphology, phonology, and syntax of their language. Reliable input, strengthened representation
Modularity Theory (Fodor) Nature inspired: major tenets (textbook) Language is organized in highly specific modules in the brain, localization; language modules perform dedicated functions but can interact with one another to produce combinations of functions; encapsulization
Localization Language is organized in highly specific modules in the brain
Encapsulization Language modules perform dedicated functions but can interact with one another to produce combinations of functions
Modules Regions of the brain developed to process specific types of information
Universal Grammar (UG) (Chomsky) - nature inspired: major tenets (textbook) Children are born with general grammatical rules and categories common to all languages, LAD; Children use input to discover the paremeters their language uses to satisfy the general grammatical rules and categories they are born with; parameters
Parameters children use input to discover the parameters their language uses to satisfy the general grammatical rules and categories they are born with.
Syntactic bootstrapping (Gleitman) - nature inspired Children use their knowledge of syntactic categories to make inferences about the meanings of new words; bootstrapping, syntax
Semantic bootstrapping (Pinker) - nature inspired children use their knowledge of word meanings to make inferences about the syntactic categories to which the words belong; bootstrapping, semantics
Prosodic bootstrapping (Wanner & Gleitman) Nature inspired Children use their sensitivity to the prosodic or acoustic structure of language to make interences about the structure of units such as clauses, phrases, and words. Bootstrapping, prosody, acoustics
Nodes Language is organized in a network containing nodes and connections
Connections The network of nodes and connections undergoes constant transformation in response to language input.
Conversational Repair When a communication breakdown occurs and the sender or receiver adjusts the exchange to mend the breakdown. It requires the receiver to provide ongoing feedback and the sender to monitor the receiver's feedback closely
Joint attention Attention on a mutual object. For infants, maintaining joint attention requires them to coordinate their attention between social partner and the object. Prerequisite to development of a conversational schema.
{} brackets comments within an utterance are marked with {} C Look at that {points to toy}
Nonlinguistic Feedback The use of eye contact, facial expression, posture, and proximity, to relay information to the sender about his or her message. It may supplement linguistic feedback or stand alone.
Paralinguistic Aspects of communication outside the linguistic information, such as pitch, loudness, posture, and eye contact. With infant-directed speech, paralinguistic features include overall pitch, exaggerated pitch contours, and slower tempos than adults
Typical conditions for good LSA At least 50 utterances; two 100 word utterances in different settings
Required for class - number of utterances 100 utterances, but suggests getting 150
(PICO) P Population: Relevant student characteristics and problem(s)
(PICO) I Intervention
(PICO) C Comparison
(PICO) O Outcomes
Grammar the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language.
Created by: ryanriggs_90