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Anat/phys spch swal

Exam 1 study guide

TermDefinition
Anatomy The study of the structure of organisms and the relations of their parts.
Biology The science that deals with the phenomenon of life and living organisms.
Physiology A specialized field within biology which can be defined as the science dealing with the functions of living organisms or their parts.
Anatomic Variation Anatomical structures do vary across individuals. There is a great deal of variability in morphology, and this is not surprising. Where we have variability in structure, we can expect to have variability in function.
The Anatomical or Reference Position This is a reference position for descriptive purposes. The position is with the living body standing erect, facing the observer, eyes front, arms at the side with palms of the hand and tips of the feet directly forward.
Usefulness of Anatomical Position It is used as a reference whether the subject is lying face down (prone), face up (supine), or any other position. anatomic nomenclature terms are used. It is also used with planes of reference.
4 Planes of Reference Sagittal, frontal, coronal, transverse
Sagittal plane a vertical plane or cut dividing the body into right and left halves.
Frontal plane vertical plane that intersects the sagittal plane and are parallel to the forehead. (dissects plane into front and back halves)
Coronal plane the frontal plane that passes through the coronal suture of the skull.
Transverse plane a plane that divides the body into upper and lower parts at any level.
Ventral Away from the backbone or toward the front of the body.
Dorsal Toward the backbone, or away from the front of the body.
Anterior Toward the front or away from the back (usually used with reference to the head).
Posterior Toward the back, or away from the front (usually used in reference to the head or the free extremities).
Cranial Towards the head (rostral used sometimes).
Caudal Toward the tail, away from the head.
Superior upper
Inferior lower
Superficial toward the surface
Deep away from the surface
Medial toward the axis or midline
Lateral away from the axis or midline
Central Pertaining to or situated at the center.
Peripheral Toward the outer surface or part.
Cells the smallest and basic form or unit of life
Tissue When colonies of cells and their intercellular substances combine in such a manner as to exhibit functional unity we call this tissue.
Five Types of Elementary Tissue epithelial, connective, muscular, nervous, vascular
Epithelial form sheets of tissue that cover the external region of the body (on surface) – skin; lines the tubes leading into the interior of the body – ear canal; it lines internal cavities of the body – thoracic cavity (the lining) – the lungs and heart are inside
Types of Epithelial Tissue epithelial tissue proper, endothelial tissue, mesothelial tissue
Epithelial tissue proper forms outer layer of skin, internal membranes, continuous with the skin; found in respiratory & digestive tracts
Endothelial tissue inner lining of walls of blood & lymph confined vessels
Mesothelial tissue specialized tissues that lines the primary body cavity – thoracic cavity
Connective tissue Serves to connect or bind structures to support the body and aiding in body maintenance
Types of Connective Tissue loose, dense, specialized
Loose connective tissue characterized by scattered fibers
Types of loose connective tissue Areolar tissue, adipose tissue
areolar tissue (connective-loose) commonly found just beneath the skin. Forms the “bed” for skin and mucous membranes.
Adipose tissue (connective-loose) a form of areolar tissue that is composed of cells which have absorbed and are impregnated with fat.
Dense (connecitve tissue) characterized by closely packed fibers
Types of dense fibrous connective tissue Tendons, ligaments, fasciae, and reticular (netlike)
Specialized connective tissue solid or rigid intercellular substances Example: Various types of cartilage and bone
Muscular tissue principle mediator of all movement; responsible for voluntary and involuntary movement; counts for 40% of body weight
Nervous tissue The motor unit consists of a nerve cell, processes, and all the muscle fibers served by the nerve cell. Highly specialized: main property is extremely irritable / sensitive – abrupt environmental change which cause electrical chemical changes
Vascular tissue Fluid tissue of the body (10% of body weight)
3 Types of Cartilage Hyaline, Elastic, Fibrous
Hyaline cartilage Covers the articular surfaces of joints and forms the framework for the larynx, trachea, and bronchi. Bluish/white when it’s young / translucent
Elastic cartilage Occurs in the external auditory meatus, the epiglottis, and in some small laryngeal cartilages / yellow, flexible, has to do with the production and reception of sound
Fibrous cartilage Is found in some joints in the body and in some ligaments, particularly the spinal column
Tendons Form the attachment of muscles to bone
Ligaments They join bone-bone, bone-cartilage, and cartilage-cartilage
3 Body Cavities pleural (chest), peritoneal (stomach), pericardial (heart)
Bones considered a dense connective tissue. It is characterized by a rigid matrix or intercellular substance. they are composed of 2 different types of cells: Osteoblasts and osteocytes. collagenous and ground substances there
2 Kinds of Bone Dense (Compact); Spongy (cancellous)
Dense (Compact) white in color
Spongy (cancellous) more poreous (small holes in them)
2 Types of bone marrow Yellow, Red
All bones covered by a tough fibourous covering periousteum
Periousteum place for attachment of muscle tendons  deep layer contains osteoblasts (help in development of new bone and repair of bone)
How many bones? 206 bones in the adult human skeleton are divided into an axial and appendicular skeleton
Axial Skelton The spine is the axis of the body, and the axial skeleton includes those bones associated with the spinal column, its extensions and processes (vertebrae, hyoid bone, rib cage)
Appendicular Skeleton Refers to the bones of the appendages. Consists of pectural girdle (upper limbs) and pelvic girdle (lower limbs)
Elevations condyle, crest, head, process, spine, trochanter, tubercle, tuberosity; describes how muscles are connected; rises in bone
Depressions fissure, fossa, fovea, groove, sulcus, foramen, meatus, sinus; lowering of bone; the skull-indentations, importance for placements
3 Joints Synarthrodial, Amphiathroidial, Diarthrodial
Synarthrodial Immovable joints; not moveable at all
Amphiathroidial slightly movable joint
Diarthrodial freely movable joint
Three Muscle Types Striated (skeletal), smooth, cardiac
Striated (skeletal) crossed by evenly spaced tranverse bands – look striated: voluntary muscle – attach primarily to skeletal system – bones called skeletal muscles
Smooth visceral; Smooth (visceral) muscle consists of fusiform cells, which contain a single nucleus within the central portion of the sarcoplasm; because of its location, some refer to it as a visceral muscle
Cardiac muscle tissue in the heart; found only in the heart and has properties of both smooth and striated muscle.
Which of the three muscle types is independent of voluntary control? Smooth muscle is a more primitive type of tissue and is found wherever movement is relatively independent of voluntary control.
What is the role of endomysium with the organization of striated muscle? It serves to bind the muscle fibers and to separate them from adjacent muscle fibers.
The tendons at the end of striated muscles fibers attach to either bone or cartilage.
Isometric contraction a contraction in which the muscle does not shorten during contraction.
Muscle contraction leads to what types of movements (e.g. flexion)? Please define each movement. Muscle contraction leads to flexion and extension movements.
Flexion a term used to describe the bending of a part, or to describe the condition of being bent.
Extension means a straightening. In the anatomical position, most of the structures, except the feet, are extended.
Respiration The transport of oxygen from the outside air to the cells within tissues, and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction.
How many vertebrae exist, how are they divided and how many vertebrae are in each category? There are 34 individual vertebrae: 7 cervical; 12 thoracic; 5 lumbar; 5 sacral; 3-5 coccygeal
Nomenclature comes from the Latin words, nomen (name) and clature (to call). means terminology, or an organization and classified system of terms
Cervical (distinguishing figure) foramen in their transverse process
Thoracic (distinguishing figure) extra articulating facets
Lumbar (distinguishing figure) size
Sacral (distunguishing figure) fused with foramen
Coccygeal (distinguishing feature) fused without foramen
Prone face down
Supine face up
Fissure (depression) a cleft or deep groove
Foramen (depression) an opening or perforation in a bone (or cartilage)
Meatus (depression) a tube or passageway
Sinus (depression) a cavity within a bone
Isotonic contraction occurs when a muscle shortens, but the tension of the muscle remains constant
Protoplasm the basic structure that enters into the composition of all living cells.
Nucleus the control unit for the cell; surrounded by a nuclear envelope by virtue of an endoplasmic reticulum (net); the ground substances of the nucleus contains chromatin desposits, which are mainly DNA. Contains a nucleolus
Nucleolus contains ribosomes, in the nucleus
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid; contributes to form of chromosomes during cell division; responsible for the transmission of genetic traits
Plasma membrane The nucleus is surrounded by a semi-permeable membrane; it controls the exchange of certain molecules and ions between the cell and its environment.
Ribosome protein biosynthesis within the cell
Cytoplasm of a living cell that consists of approximately 70-85% water and approximately 20% protein substance
Intracellular fluid fluid inside of cell; mostly water
Extracellular fluid fluid outside of cell - ions & nutrients to sustain life and cell to function
Centrosome usually found near the nucleus; it has been clearly associated with mitotic cell division
mitochondrion a complex structure that provides energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate), which is associated with the contractile process of the muscle tissue) - energy source
Reticular tissue (dense-connective) It joins the processes of neighboring cells and forms the supporting framework for organs, such as the thymus and spleen; most primitive form of tissue - connective tissue; connecting cells
Fascia used in anatomy to describe all of the dense fibrous connective tissues not otherwise designated as tendons or ligaments. Vary in terms of thickness and density; form a thin membranous sheet commonly associated with muscles; easily damaged, easily repair
Cartilage special connective tissue; composed of cells, ground substance, intercellular fibers; can stand a great deal of compression or force - forms the entire skeleton of body
chondroblasts the cells of cartilage; found in irregular spaces, or cavities, within the ground substance
Epiglottis set above thyroid notch, fan, covers up the vocal folds when you swallow; stuff can get in to it - cough it up and comes back out of it & then goes to the esophagus
Yellow bone marrow adipose (fat tissue)
Red bone marrow manufacturer of red blood cells
muscle cell or muscle fiber the smallest unit of muscle tissue. They range from .01 to .1mm in diameter and from 1 to 120mm in length
sarcoplasm embedded in a form of specialized protoplasm where an individual muscle fiber is multi-nucleated and composed of hundreds or even thousands of long filament-like myofibrils
sarcolemma membrane that surround sarcoplasm myofibrils
myoglobin a protein muscle fibers contain, which is similar to the hemoglobin in blood, bind oxygen - increase rate of oxygen diffusion to muscle fiber
endomysium a fibrous tissue that each muscle fiber is terminated rather bluntly; set boundary between muscles; surrounds muscle fibers; compartmentalized bundles fibers together as a functional unit; helps connect those muscle fibers; fibers are bundled
periostium coverous fiber on bone-muscle; attached to bone
perichodrium muscle attached to cartilage
Haversian Canal blood & nerves go through it; surround blood vessels and nerve cells throughout the bone and communicate with osteocytes in lacunae (spaces within the dense bone matrix that contain the living bone cells) through the canaliculi
kinesiology the science of movement
muscle tone is usually present in most muscles; allows the stretching of muscles; the muscle fibers are set to a certain length - cerebral palsy or stroke - the reflex - contraction level has increased - not able to function in order to reduce the tone
abduction means movement away from the body
condyle (elevation) a rounded or knuckle-like process
process (elevation) a bony prominence
crest (elevation) a prominent ridge
head (elevation) an enlargement at one end of the bone beyond its neck
spine (elevation) a sharp projection
trochanter (elevation) a very large bony projection
tubercle (elevation) a small rounded projection
tuberosity (elevation) a large rounded projection
fossa (depression) a pit or hollow
fovea (depression) a small pit-like depression
groove (depression) a furrow
neck (depression) a construction near one end (the head) of a bone
sulcus (depression) a groove or a furrow
adduction means movement towards the median plane or axis
medial rotation to rotate a member toward the midplane of the body. (standing pigeon-toed is an example)
lateral rotation to rotate away from the midplane
pulmonary apparatus consists of the trachea, pulmonary airways, lungs
chest wall consists of the rib cage wall, abdominal wall, diaphragm, and abdominal content
breathing apparatus contains torso or body trunk; known as the pulmonary-chest wall unit; consists of the pulmonary apparatus & chest wall - contribute to breathing
How many vertebrae exist, how are they divided, and how many vertebrae are in each category? There are 34 individual vertebrae: 7 cervical; 12 thoracic; 5 lumbar; 5 sacral; 3-5 coccygeal
Atlas The first cervical vertebrae; C1
Axis The second cervical vertebrae; C2
Intervertebral cartilage complex system of ligaments and vertebrae
Hyoid bone "u" shaped bone beneath jaw
Most vertebrae consist of: A body (corpus); pedicle (vertebral arch) (legs); vertebral foramen; neural arch; spinous process; and transverse process
Vertebra's function They function in the skeletomuscular system by forming the vertebral column to support the body of an animal and to provide the opening, the vertebral foramen, for the passage of the spinal canal, and its enclosed spinal cord and covering meninges.
Body (corpus) of vertebrae main rounded process; the largest part of vertebra, and is more or less cylindrical in shape. Its upper and lower surfaces are flattened and rough, and give attachment to the intervertebral discs, and each presents a rim around its circumferences; support
Pedicle (vertebral arch; legs) of vertebrae The segment between the transverse process and the vertebral body. Its function is protection for the vertebrae.
Vertebral foramen opening of vertebrae - spinal cord, vains, arteries & spinal nerves travel through it. It is a protective structure.
Neural arch of vertebrae a vertebrae's posterior part that consists of the vertebral arch and two pedicles. Its function is protection for vertebrae.
Spinous process directed backward and downward from the junction of the laminae (vertebral arch), and serves for the attachment of muscles and ligaments. Its function is for movement.
Transverse process going out to the side on either side of the vertebrae - look like wings - forms points of articulation with ribs - help in rib movement. Its function is for movement.
costo rib
vertebral vertebrae
sterno/sternal sternum
chondral cartilage
Two sets of joints allow movement Joints between ribs and sternum and ribs and cartilage (costosternal joints or costochondral); joints between ribs and vertebral column (costrovertebral joints)
articulation a place where two structures come together or connect; a joint
Two types of movement of the rib cage - due to joints (1) vertical excursion of the front end of the rib cage leading front-to-back diameter increase (analogous to raising the handle on an old fashion water pump.)
Two types of movement of the rib cage - due to joints (2) vertical excursion along the side of the rib cage leading side-to-side diameter increase (analogous to raising/lowering a bucket handle)
Ribs long curved bones which form the rib cage; surround the chest, enabling the lungs to expand and thus facilitate breathing by expanding the chest cavity. They serve to protect the lungs, heart, and other internal organs of the thorax.
How many pairs of ribs are there? There are 12 pairs (24 ribs)
"True" ribs The first seven (7) pairs of ribs join directly with the sternum to form the costosternal joint.
"False" Ribs Rib pairs 8, 9, and 10 connect indirectly to the sternum by means of long costal cartilage
"Floating" Ribs Rib pairs 11 and 12 have vertebral attachments, but their anterior extremities are free.
Where do ribs attach anteriorly? At the front (anteriorly), most of the ribs attach to bars of costal (rib) cartilage, which in turn, attach to the sternum or breastbone. The sternum serves as a front centerpost for the rib cage.
Where do ribs attach posteriorly? Towards the back (posteriorly) they attach to the thoracic vertebrae.
Costochondral joints (articulations) the joints between the ribs and costal cartilage in the front of the rib cage. They are hyaline cartilaginous joints (i.e. synchondroses). The lateral end of each costal cartilage is received into a depression in the sternal end of the rib - periosteum
Costovertebral joints (articulations) the articulations that connect the heads of ribs with the bodies of the thoracic vertebrae. Joining of ribs to the vertebrae occurs at two places, the head and tubercle of the rib.
Costocentral articulations (1) the articulations of the heads of the ribs constitute a series of gliding or arthrodial joints, and are formed by the articulation of the heads of the typical ribs with the facets on the contiguous margins of the bodies of the vertebrae
Costocentral articulations (2) and with the intervertebral fibro-cartilages between them; the first, eleventh and twelfth ribs each articulate with a single vertebra.
Costotransverse articulations the joint formed between the facet of the tubercle of the rib and the adjacent transverse process of a thoracic vertebra. The joint is a plane type synovial joint which, under physiological conditions, allows only gliding movement.
Lanfmarks of the sternum manubrium; clavicular articulation; articulation of the first rib; sternal angle; corpus (body); ensiform or xyphoid process
Identify the body and the location of the rib attaching the sternum (or anterior attachment) and the posterior attachment. sternum - anterior; thoracic vertebrae - posterior
Sternum (1) the breastbone; a long flat bony plate shaped like a capital "T" located anteriorly to the heart in the center of the thorax (chest).
Sternum (2) function It connects to the rib bones via cartilage, forming the anterior section of the rib cage with them, and thus help protect the lungs, heart and major blood vessels from physical trauma.
Three main parts of sternum manubrium, body (corpus); Ensiform or xyphoid process
Respiration The transport of oxygen from the outside air to the cells within tissues, and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction.
manubrium top landmark of sternum; it has a quandrangular shape, narrowing from the top, which gives it four borders. It articulates with the body of sternum, the clavicles and the cartilages of the first pair of ribs.
clavicular articulation the manubrium of the sternum and the acromion of the scapula
scapula shoulder blade; one of the pair of large flat, three-sided bones that form the back of the shoulder
clavical (clavicle) collar bone: a long, curved horizontal bone just above the first rib, forming the front portion of the shoulder
pectoral girdle clavial and scapula and upper limbs; the set of bones, which connects the upper limb to the axial skeleton on each side
articulation of first rib (anteriorly) the manubrium of the sternum and (posteriorly) the transverse process of T1
costal cartilage bars of hyaline cartilage which serve to prolong the ribs forward and contribute to the elasticity of the walls of the thorax. Found at the anterior ends of the ribs
acromion a bony process on the scapula (shoulder blade)
sternal angle the anterior angle formed by the junction of the manubrium and the body of the sternum
corpus of sternum body of sternum
Ensiform or xiphoid process a small cartilaginous process (extension) of the lower part of the sternum which is usually ossified in the adult human. Considered to beat the level of the 9th thoracic vertebra
Purpose of pectoral girdle to position the shoulder joint and provide a base for arm movement
extension means a straightening. In the anatomical position, most of the structures, except the feet, are extended, move arm down
humerous (bone) the long bone in the upper arm, located between the elbow joint and the shoulder. It articulates with the glenoid fossa of scapula.
glenoid cavity (glenoid fossa of scapula) part of the shoulder; where the scapula and the head of the humerous bone articulate
Pelvic Girdle is a supporting structure to which the lower limbs are attached; known as the pelvis; consists of the coxal bone, sacral, lumbar and coccygeal vertebrae hip bones - which forms our bony pelvis
Landmarks of the pelvic girdle acetabulum ("vinegar cup"); coxal bone: Illium, shcium, pubis (pubic bone)
Acetabulum ("vinegar cup") forms the socket of the femur
Coxal bone hip bone; consists of the illium; ishium, and pubis (pubic bone)
Illium makes up groin/greatest bulk of coxal bone
Ischium forms the lower and back part of the hip bone; situated below the illium and behind the pubis
Pubis (pubic bone) the ventral and anterior of the three principal bones composing either half of the pelvis
Purpose of Pelvic Girdle serves as supporting structure to which the lower limbs are attached; to bear weight of the upper body when sitting and standing; to contain protect the inferior parts of the urinary tracts, and internal reproductive organs
muscles of inspiration (1) diaphragm; external intercostal; internal intercostal (intercartilaginous); levator costarum, longis; levator costarum, brevis; serratus posterior, superior; sternocleidomastoid; scalenus anterior; scalenus medius; scalenus posterior; pectoralis major;
muscles of inspiration (2) pectoralis minor; subclavius; serratus anterior; latissimus dorsi; lateral illiocostalis cervicis; lateral illiocostalis thoracis
Inspiration (inhalation) the flow of air into an organism; the movement of air from the external environment, through the airways and into the alveoli begins with the contraction of the muscles attached to the rib cage; this causes an expansion in the chest cavity
Expiration (exhalation) the flow of the respiratory current out of the organism. It is the movement of air out of the bronchial tubes, through the airways, to the external environment during breathing.
Diaphragm (inspiratory muscle) (Origin) Xiphoid process of the sternum, inferior margin of the rib cage (ribs 7-12), corpus of L1, and transverse process of L1-L5
Diaphragm (inspiratory muscle) (Insertion) Fibers course up and medially to the central tendon of the diaphragm
Diaphragm (inspiratory muscle) (Function) when the diaphragm muscle contracts, it can effect 2 actions: one of theses is to pull the central tendon downward and forward, thus enlarging the thorax vertically and the other is to enlarge the thorax circumferentially through elevation lower ribs
Hernia tear in the muscle tendon
External intercostal (inspiratory muscle) (origin) inferior surface of ribs 1-11
External intercostal (inspiratory muscle) (insertion) course down to the upper surface of the rib directly below
External intercostal (inspiratory muscle) (function) when it contracts, it raises up the rib cage; gives more space; when the muscle in any rib interspace contracts, it elevates the rib immediately below and, perhaps, other ribs below through their linkage to the sheet of muscle.
Internal intercostal (intercartilaginous) (inspiratory muscle) (origin) inferior surface of ribs 1-11 at the anterior cartilaginous portion of the ribs (lies under external intercostals)
Internal intercostal (intercartilaginous) (inspiratory muscle) (insertion) course down to the upper surface of the rib directly below
Internal intercostal (intercartilaginous) (inspiratory muscle) (function) involved in elevation of ribs; form a large sheet of muscle that links the ribs to one another and to the pelvic girdle through other muscles, especially those of the abdominal wall
Levator costarum, longis (Inspiratory muscle) (origin) transverse process of T7-T11
Levator costarum, longis (inspiratory muscle) (insertion) course down and obliquely out; bypass the rib below the point of origin rather inserting into the next rib
Levator costarum, longis (inspiratory muscle) (function) contracts to elevate the rib cage; when an individual muscle of this muscle group contracts, it elevates the ribs into which it inserts
Levator costarum, brevis (inspiratory muscle) (origin) transverse process of T7-T11
Levator costarum, brevis (inspiratory muscle) (insertion) course obliquely down and out to insert at the tubercle of the rib below
Levator costarum, brevis (inspiratory muscle) (function) elevate ribs; when an individual muscle of this muscle group contracts, it elevates the ribs into which it inserts
serratus posterior superior (inspiratory muscle) (origin) spinous processes of C7 and T1-T3
serratus posterior superior (inspiratory muscle) (insertion) course down laterally to insert just beyond the angles of ribs 2 through 5.
serratus posterior superior (inspiratory muscle) (function) elevate ribs expanding the thoracic cavity - allows lungs to expand; when the muscle contracts, it pulls upward on the second through fifth ribs
sternocleidomastoid (inspiratory muscle) (origin) mastoid process of the temporal bone
sternocleidomastoid (inspiratory muscle) (insertion) course down and in to insert the superior portion of the manubrium and the clavicle
sternocleidomastoid (inspiratory muscle) (function) when it contracts it elevates the sternum and rib cage, when the head is fixed in position, contraction of this muscle results in elevation of the sternum and clavicle
Scalenus Anterior (inspiratory muscle) (origin) transverse processes of vertebrae C3-C6
Scalenus Anterior (inspiratory muscle) (insertion) course down to insert into the superior surface of rib 1
Scalenus Anterior (inspiratory muscle) (function) elevation of first rib; when the head is fixed in position, contraction of this muscle and/or scalenus medius muscles results in elevation of the first rib
Scalenus medius (inspiratory muscle) (origin) transverse process of vertebrae C2-C7
Scalenus medius (inspiratory muscle) (insertion) course down to the superior surface of the first rib
Scalenus medius (inspiratory muscle) (function) elevates first rib; when the head is fixed in position, contraction of the scalenus and/or this muscle results in elevation of the first rib
Scalenus posterior (inspiratory muscle) (origin) Transverse processes of C5-C7
Scalenus posterior (inspiratory muscle) (insertion) course down to insert at the second rib
Scalenus posterior (inspiratory muscle) (function) elevates second rib; contraction of this muscle results in the elevation of the second rib
Pectoralis major (inspiratory muscle) (origin) sternal head; length of the sternum at the costal cartilages; clavicular head; and the anterior clavicle
Pectoralis major (inspiratory muscle) (insertion) courses fan-like laterally, converging at the humerous, with insertion at the greater tubercle of the humerous
Pectoralis major (inspiratory muscle) (function) elevates sternum; increases transverse dimension of rib cage and then thoracic cavity; when humerous is held in position, contraction of this muscle pulls the sternum and ribs upward
Pectoralis minor (inspiratory muscle) (origin) anterior surface of ribs 2-5 near the chondral margin
Pectoralis minor (inspiratory muscle) (insertion) courses up and laterally to insert into the coracoid process of the scapula; attaches to anterior portion of scapula and goes through rib
Pectoralis minor (inspiratory muscle) (function) boundary of corner of thoracic cavity increase transverse dimension of rib cage and then thoracic cavity; when scapula is fixed in position, contraction of this muscle elevates the second through fifth ribs
Subclavius (inspiratory muscle) (origin) inferior surface of clavicle
Subclavius (inspiratory muscle) (insertion) courses obliquely and medially to insert at the superior surface of rib 1 at the chondral margin
Subclavius (inspiratory muscle) (function) elevates the first rib; when the clavicle is braced, contraction of the subclavius muscle elevates the first rib
Serratus Anterior (inspiratory muscle) (origin) inferior surface of clavicle
Serratus Anterior (inspiratory muscle) (insertion) courses obliquely and medially to insert at the superior surface of rib 1 at the chondral margin
Serratus anterior (inspiratory muscle) (function) elevates the first rib; when the scapula is fixed in position, contraction of this muscle results in elevation of the upper ribs
Latissimus dorsi (inspiratory muscle) (origin) lower six thoracic, along with lumbar and sacral vertebrae and back surface of ribs 8-12
Latissimus dorsi (inspiratory muscle) (insertion) courses upward across the back of the lower torso at different angles to insert into the humerous
Latissimus dorsi (inspiratory muscle) (function) humerous fixed (steady) during contraction it elevates the lower ribs; humerous not fixed during contraction - humerous pulls towards it causing lower ribs to expand
Lateral iliocostalis cervis (inspiratory muscle) (origin) outer surface of ribs 3-6
Lateral iliocostalis cervis (inspiratory muscle) (insertion) courses upward and toward the midline to insert into the 4-6 cervical vertebrae
Lateral iliocostalis cervicis (inspiratory muscle) elevates ribs 3-6 upward; contraction of this muscle causes elevation of the third through sixth ribs
Lateral iliocostalis thoracis (inspiratory muscle) (origin) upper edges of ribs 7-12
Lateral iliocostalis thoracis (inspiratory muscle) (insertion) courses upward and toward the midline to insert into the lower edges of ribs 1-6
Lateral iliocostalis thoracis (inspiratory muscle) (function) when it contracts, it stabalizes a large segment of back of the rib cage and makes them move along with rib cage elevation
Muscles of expiration Inter intercostal (Interosseus portion); Transversus thoracis; subcostal; serratus posterior inferior; transversus abdominis; internal oblique abdominis; external oblique abdominis; quadratus lumborum; latissimus dorsi; lateral iliocostalis lumborum;
Muscles of expiration (continued) lateral iliocostalis thoracis; rectus abdominis
Internal intercostal interosseous portion (expiratory muscle) (origin) inferior margin of thoracic ribs 1-11 (not on anterior cartilagious portion of ribs but bone portion (i.e. interosseus)
Internal intercostal interosseous portion (expiratory muscle) (insertion) course down and laterally to insert at superior surface of the rib below (fills the space between the ribs)
Internal intercostal interosseous portion (expiratory muscle (function) depresses (lowers) ribs 1-11; responsible for forced and quiet inhalation; they raise the ribs and expand the chest cavity
Transversus thoracis (expiratory muscle) (origin) posterior surface of the sternum along the body and xiphoid process
Transversus thoracis (expiratory muscle) (insertion) course up and laterally to insert at the inner chondral surface of ribs 2-6
Transversus thoracis (expiratory muscle) (function) depresses the rib cage; when the muscle contracts, it exerts a downward pull on the second through sixth ribs; depresses rib cage
Subcostal (expiratory muscle) (origin) from inner surface of the rib near the angle
Subcostal (expiratory muscle) (insertion) course down and laterally to insert on the inner surface of the second or third rib below
Subcostal (expiratory muscle) (function) pulling down on rib cage (all the ribs) or cause depression or lowering of the ribs; when the muscles contract, they pull downward in the ribs into which they are inserted
Serratus posterior inferior (expiratory muscle) (origin) spinous processes of T11, T12, and L1-L3
Serratus posterior inferior (expiratory muscle) (insertion) course up and laterally to insert at the lower margin of ribs 7-12
Serratus posterior inferior (expiratory muscle) (function) pulls the rib cage down (depresses) involved by supporting expiratory effort; contraction of the muscle results in a downward pull on the lower four ribs
Transversus abdominis (expiratory muscle) (origin) posterior abdominal wall at the vertebral column via the thoracolumbar fascia of the abdominal aponeurosis
Transversus abdominis (expiratory muscle) (insertion) course laterally to insert at the trnaverse abdominis aponeurosis and inner surface of ribs 6-12
Transversus abdominis (expiratory muscle) (function) compresses the abdominal contents, pushes the diaphragm upward and causes the thoracic cavity to become smaller making air molecules closer together. When the muscle contracts, it forces the front and side of the abdominal wall inward
Aponeurosis layers of flat broad tendons; shiny, whitish-silvery color, similar to tendons, very sparingly supplied with blood vessels and nerves in the ventral abdominal region and dorsal lumbar region
Internal oblique abdominis (expiratory muscle) (origin) inguinal ligament and illiac crest
Internal oblique abdominis (expiratory muscle) (insertion) courses fan-like medially to insert on the cartilaginous portion of the lower limbs and the portion of the abdominal aponeurosis lateral to the rectus abdominis
Internal oblique abdominis (expiratory muscle) (function) Rotates and flexes the trunk and compresses the abdomen
External oblique abdominis (expiratory muscle) (origin) osseus portion of the lower seven ribs
External oblique abdominis (expiratory muscle) (insertion) course fan-like downward to insert at the iliac crest
External oblique abdominis (expiratory muscle) (function) bilateral contraction - flexes vertebral column; compresses the abdomen - could be unilateral contraction - to raise the floor a little bit
Rectus abdominis (expiratory muscle) (origin) originates as four (4) or five (5) segments at the pubis inferiorly
Rectus abdominis (expiratory muscle) (insertion) courses up to the xiphoid process of the sternum and the cartilage of ribs 5-7
Rectus abdominis (expiratory muscle) (function) flexion of the vertebral column
Quadratus lumborum (expiratory muscle) (origin) iliac crest
Quadratus lumborum (expiratory muscle) (insertion) courses fan-like up and medially to insert at the transverse processes of the lumbar vertebrae and the inferior border of rib 12
Quadratus lumborum (expiratory muscle) (function) bilateral contraction-fixes abdominal wall - support abdominal compression - decrease vertical dimension - raise floor of thoracic cavity
Latissimus dorsi (expiratory muscle) (origin) lumbar, sacral, and lower thoracic vertebrae
Latissimus dorsi (expiratory muscle) (insertion) courses up fan-like to insert into the humerous
latissimus dorsi (expiratory muscle) (function) the humerous does have to be fixed (held steady); stabalize posterior abdominal wall for expiration
Lateral iliocostalis thoracis (expiratory muscle) (origin) upper edges of ribs 7-12
Lateral iliocostalis thoracis (expiratory muscle) (insertion) courses upward and toward the midline to insert into the lower edges of ribs 1-6
Lateral iliocostalis thoracis (expiratory muscle) (function) muscle contracted - stabalizes large segments of rib cage wall and leads to rib depression - decrease the size of thoracic cavity - cause an increase in pressure
Lateral iliocostalis lumborum (expiratory muscle) (origin) lumodorsal fascia, lumbar vertebrae, and back surface of the coxal bone
lateral iliocostalis lumborum (expiratory muscle) (insertion) courses upward and medially to insert into the lower edges of ribs 7-12
lateral iliocostalis lumborum (expiratory muscle) (function) depresses the lower ribs
List and identify the structures of the pulmonary airways pulmonary tree, trachea (windpipe), larynx, main-stem bronchi, lobar bronchi, segmental bronchi, subsegmental bronchi, small bronchi, terminal bronchi, bronchioles, terminal bronchioles, respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, alveoli
List and identify the structures of the pulmonary airways (continued) alst, cul de sacs
Trachea (wind pipe) (1) The trunk of the pulmonary tree; a tube attached to the bottom of the larynx (voice box); it runs down through the neck into the torso; composed of a series of c-shaped carilages whose open ends face toward the back where the structure is completed
Trachea (wind pipe) (2) by a flexible wall shared with the esophagus (muscular tube leading to the stomach). At the lower end, it divides into two smaller tubes, one running to the left lung and one running to the right lung
Pulmonary Tree a complex network of flexible tubes through which air can be moved to and from the lungs and between different parts of the lungs; these tubes are patterned like branches of an inverted deciduous tree.
Larynx the voice box; functions as protection for the airways and for speaking as the vocal folds come together (adduct) and vibrate
Main-stem bronchi two small tubes where the trachea divides into one running to the left lung and one running to the right lung. They branch into lobar bronchi.
The (5) Five Lobar bronchi the tubes that run to the five lobes of the lungs (two on the left and three on the right). They branch and their offspring also branch, through more than 20 generations.
The alst and alveoli contain extremely small cul de sacs filled with air
cul de sacs filled with air; they number more than 300 million and are the sites where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged
What is the role of pleura in the breathing process? (1) The outer surfaces of the lungs are covered with a thin airtight membrane, the visceral pleura. A similar membrane, the parietal pleura covers the inner surface of the chest wall where it contracts the lungs.
What is the role of pleura in the breathing process? (2) Together, these two membranes form a double-walled sac that encases the lungs. Both walls of this sac are covered with a thin layer of liquid, which lubricates them and enables them to move easily upon one another.
What is the role of pleura in the breathing process? (3) The same layer of liquid links the visceral and parietal membranes together, in the manner that a film of water holds two glass plates together. Thus, the lungs and chest wall fund to move as a unit - where on goes, the other follows.
Identify the four structures of the chest wall The chest wall encases the pulmonary apparatus. There are four parts of the chest wall: 1. The rib cage wall; 2. diaphragm; 3. abdominal wall; 4. abdominal content
The Rib Cage Wall (1) it surrounds the lungs in the shape of a barrel. Consists of thoracic vertebrae, associated ribs, costal cartilage, and the attachment to the sternum and pectoral girdle.
The Rib Cage Wall (2) It also contains muscular and non-muscular membranes covering the inner and outer spaces, and the spaces between the ribs.
Diaphragm (part of chest wall) (1) separates the thorax (cavity housing the lungs) from the abdominal contents. It is dome shaped and the right side is lower than the left. The center of it contains the inelastic central tendon.
Diaphragm (part of chest wall) (2) A sheet of muscle arises from the lower portion of the inside of the rib cage and extends upward to the central tendon.
Abdominal wall (1) It provides the casing for the lower half of the torso. It is enclosed by two sheets of connective tissue (i.e. abdominal aponeurosis and the lumbodorsal fascia).
Abdominal wall (2) The posterior portion of the abdominal wall includes 15 vertebrae (lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal), extending down to the tail bone and pelvic girdle. Muscles surround it. It surrounds the abdominal cavity.
Abdominal content (1) The stomach, organs, and other international structures are found within the abdominal cavity. The content are relatively homogenous and are suspended from above by a suction force at the interior surface of the diaphragm.
Abdominal content (2) The suction, along with the abdominal wall holds this in place. The cavity and the content are a mechanical equivalent of an elastic bag filled with water.
Describe how the chest wall operates (1) The linkage between it (rib cage, abdominal wall, diaphragm, and abdominal content) and the lungs via the pleura leads to the two components acting as one unit. As it expands during inspiration, the lungs expand in size.
Describe how the chest wall operates (2) As it contracts during expiration, the lungs contract in size. The expanding sets the stage for air to move into the lungs and the contraction leads to air moving out of the lungs.
Describe how air moves in and out of the lungs (inspiration) (1) During inhalation, inspiratory muscle contract causing the expansion of the rib cage and thoracic cavity allowing the lungs to get bigger. Due to this increase in size of the thoracic cavity, the air molecules spread apart and the air pressure is reduced.
Describe how air moves in and out of the lungs (inspiration) (2) Because the air pressure within the lungs is now less than the air pressure on the outside of the lungs, new air rushes into the lungs (i.e. air moves from high to low pressure). When the pressure inside the lungs equals the pressure outside the lungs,
Describe how air moves in and out of the lungs (inspiration) (3) air movement stops, and equilibrium of the pressures are reached.
Describe how air moves in and out of the lungs (expiration) (1) For exhalation to occur, first the expiratory muscles contract causing the depression of the rib cage, and reducing of size of thoracic cavity causing the lungs to get smaller. The air molecules squeeze closer together causing the pressure inside to
Describe how air moves in and out of the lungs (expiration) (2) increase. The air pressure inside the lungs is greater than the pressure outside the lungs, and air rushes out. Air leaves the lungs until an equalibrium of the pressures is reached.
Describe how air moves in and out of the lungs (3) The process starts over with inhalation. This is completed through passive and active forces of respiration. Passive forces are created as a result of inspiration.
neural substrates (1) They control a wide variety of breathing activities. Such activities can be associated with different states, including being awake, alert aroused, asleep, conscious, or unconscious.
neural substrates (2) Such activities can also be classified using different schemes that include terms such as automatic, metabolic, reflexive, learned, voluntary, behavioral, purposeful, or emotional
Tidal breathing the most common form of breathing, is sometimes called automatic breathing, metabolic breathing, or involuntary breathing.
What part of the brain is responsible for tidal breathing? (1) brainstem; its control is vested in the brainstem. Of special importantance are structures located in the medulla, the region of the brainstem that is contiguous with the spinal cord.
What part of the brain is responsible for tidal breathing? (2) These structures include a network of neurons that are collectively designated as the lower brain center for breathing.
chondroblasts the cells of cartilage; found in irregular spaces, or cavities, within the ground substance
Joints the functional connections which exist between the various bones of the skeleton are called articulations or this.
Central nervous system (CNS) includes the brain and spinal cord. The former is a mass and the later is a long appendage of the brain that extends downward through the vertebral column
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) connects the central nervous system with different parts of the breathing apparatus. These connections are affected through cranial and spinal nerves
Four cranial nerves for breathing (1) These include cranial nerves IX (glossopharyngeal), X (vagus), and XII (hypoglossal), which innervate muscles that dilate the larynx and upper airway during inspiration, and cranial nerve XI (accessory), which innervates the sternocleidomastoid muscle
Four cranial nerves for breathing (2) that elevates the sternum, clavicle, and rib cage
Spinal nerves for breathing 22 spinal nerves contribute to the control of breathing
Define active and passive forces of inspiration and the role they play in maintaining alveolar pressure during speaking (1) Passive forces generate alveolar pressure for speech. The passive forces result from: untwisting of the cartilage found between the ribs and sternum; -gravity (the rib cage moves upward against gravity on inspiration and during expiration, gravity pushes
Define active and passive forces of inspiration and the role they play in maintaining alveolar pressure during speaking (1) continued back); -elastic recoil force of muscles, abdominal content and other structures being displaced during inspiration (i.e. structures want to go back to original state)
Define active and passive forces of inspiration and the role they play in maintaining alveolar pressure during speaking (2) The three passive forces of inspiration lead to either positive or negative alveolar pressures. This is dependent on the amount of air taken in during inspiration or the percentage of vital capacity. The greater the air inhale, the greater the pressures
Define active and passive forces of inspiration and the role they play in maintaining alveolar pressure during speaking (2) continued generated just through passive forces.
Define active and passive forces of inspiration and the role they play in maintaining alveolar pressure during speaking (3) During conversational speech we generate between 5-10cm H2O. If we breathe in about 60% of our vital capacity, we would generate enough pressure for conversational speech. If we want to use passive forces to increase our volume, we need to breathe in a
Define active and passive forces of inspiration and the role they play in maintaining alveolar pressure during speaking (3) continued larger amount of air to achieve higher alveolar pressure for louder speech.
Define active and passive forces of inspiration and the role they play in maintaining alveolar pressure during speaking (4) When talking, the speaker needs to maintain a consistent alveolar pressure. As one begins speaking, the air pressure developed by passive pressures begins to decrease. The longer one speaks, the more likely active or muscle pressures will need to begin
Define active and passive forces of inspiration and the role they play in maintaining alveolar pressure during speaking (4) continued to assist passive forces in order to maintain constant pressure
Define active and passive forces of inspiration and the role they play in maintaining alveolar pressure during speaking (5) Active forces or expiratory muscle contraction occurs when the speakers target volume has the potential to be reduced as the contributions of the passive forces decreases. Typically, the longer we speak, the more muscular force must occur to generate the
Define active and passive forces of inspiration and the role they play in maintaining alveolar pressure during speaking (5) continued target pressure.
Define active and passive forces of inspiration and the role they play in maintaining alveolar pressure during speaking (6) Both active and passive forces act to reduce the size of the thoracic cavity to cause air molecules in the lungs to get closer together as more and more molecules are expelled from the oral cavity. At a point, an inadequate number of air molecules will
Define active and passive forces of inspiration and the role they play in maintaining alveolar pressure during speaking (6) continues be present where no further reduction in the size of the thorax, and indirectly, the lungs can occur. At this point, the speaker needs to inspire.
Ephatptic contraction what smooth muscle does when it contracts
synovial joint freely moveable joint; the kind of joint "true ribs" attach to; known as a diarthrosis, is the most common and most movable type of joint in the body
Clavicular notch where the clavicle attaches to the manubrium of the sternum
vocal fold nodules a mass of tissue that grows on the vocal folds. Typically, this mass will appear on the junction of the anterior 1/3 and posterior 2/3 of the vocal fold, where contact is most forceful
medial compression (tension) obtained by contracting the lateral thyoarytenoid muscles. The adductive tension is caused by contraction of the interarytenoid muscles
vocal folds also known commonly as vocal cords or voice reeds, are composed of twin in foldings of mucous membrane stretched horizontally, from back to front, across the larynx. They vibrate, modulating the flow of air being expelled from the lungs during phonation
esophagus commonly known as the foodpipe or gullet, is an organ in vertebrates, which consists of a fibromuscular tube through which food passes, aided by peristaltic contractions, from the pharynx to to the stomach, roughly 18-25cm long
conversation speech level (alveolar pressure and vital capacity) 5-10cm H20 - alveolar pressure; 60% - vital capacity
vital capacity (VC) how much we can blow out of the lungs intertwined with what you are taking in
osseous bone; all around the bone
intervertebral disc or (intervertebral fibrocartilage) lie between adjacent vertebrae in the spine.
passive forces generate alveolar pressure needed for speech
active forces contractions occurs when the speakers target volume has the potential to be reduced as the contributions of the passive forces decrease
Created by: ryanriggs_90