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Computer Concepts

CH 4: Securing Your System: Protecting Your Digital Data and Devices

TermDefinition
adware A program that downloads on your computer, when a user installs a freeware program, game, or utility. Generally, adware enables sponsored advertisements to appear in a section of a browser window or as a pop-up ad.
antivirus system Software specially designed to detect viruses and protect a computer and files from harm.
backdoor program Program that enables a hacker to take complete control of a computer without a legitimate user's knowledge or permission.
backup A copy of a computer file that can be used to replace the original if it's lost or damaged.
biometric authentication device A device that uses some unique characteristics of human biology to identify authorized users.
black-hat hacker A hacker who uses his or her knowledge to destroy information of for illegal gain.
boot-sector virus A virus that replicates itself into a master boot record of a flash drive or hard drive.
botnet A large group of software applications (called robots or bots) that run without user intervention on a large number of computers.
computer forensics The application of computer systems and techniques to gather potential legal evidence; a law enforcement specialty used to fight high-tech crime.
cookie A small text file that some websites automatically store on a client computer's hard drive when a user visits the site.
cybercrime Any criminal action perpetrated primarily through the use of a computer.
cybercriminal An individual who uses computers, networks, and the Internet to perpetrate crime.
cyberloafing Doing anything with a computer that's unrelated to a job (such as playing video games) while one's supposed to be working. Also called cyberslacking.
data breach When sensitive or confidential information is copied, transmitted, or viewed by an individual who is not authorized to handle the data.
data file A file that contains stored data.
denial-of-service (DOS) attack An attack that occurs when legitimate users are denied access to a computer system because a hacker is repeatedly making requests of that computer system that tie up its resources and deny legitimate users access.
distributed denial-of-service (DDOS) attack An automated attack that's launched from more than one zombie computer at the same time.
drive-by download The use of malicious software to attack a computer by downloading harmful programs onto a computer, without the user's knowledge, while they are surfing a website.
e-mail virus A virus transmitted by e-mail that often uses the address book in the victim's e-mail system to distribute itself.
encryption virus A malicious program that searches for common data files and compress them into a file using a complex encryption key, thereby rendering the files unusable.
firewall A software program or hardware device designed to prevent unauthorized access to computers or networks.
geotag Data attached to a photograph that indicates the latitude and longitude where you were standing when you took the photo.
grey-hat hacker A cross between black and white - a hacker who will often illegally break into systems merely to flaunt his or her expertise to the administrator of the system he or she penetrated or to attempt to sell his or her services in repairing security branches.
hacker Anyone who unlawfully breaks into a computer system (whether an individual computer or a network).
identify theft The process by which someone uses personal information about someone else (such as the victim's name, address, and Social Security number) to assume the victim's identity for the purpose of defrauding another.
image backup (system backup) A copy of an entire computer system, created for restoration purpose.
incremental backup (partial backup) A type of backup that only backs up files that have changed since the last time files were backed up.
inoculation A process used by antivirus software; compares old and current qualities of files to detect viral activity.
keystroke logger (keylogger) A type of spyware program that monitors keystrokes with the intent of stealing passwords, login IDs, or credit card information.
logical port A viral communications gateway or path that enables a computer to organize requests for information (such as web page downloads and e-mail routing) from other networks or computers.
logical port blocking A condition in which a firewall is configured to ignore all incoming packets that request access to a certain port so that no unwanted requests will get through to the computer.
logic bomb A computer virus that runs when a certain set of conditions is met, such as when a program launched a specific number of times.
macro virus A virus that's distributed by hiding it inside a macro.
malware Software that's intended to render a system temporarily or permanently useless or to penetrate a computer system completely for purposes of information gathering. Examples include spyware, viruses, worms, and Trojan horses.
master boot record A small program that runs whenever a computer boots up.
multipartite virus Literally meaning "multipart" virus; a type of computer virus that attempts to infect computers using more than one method.
network address translation (NAT) A process that firewalls use to assign internal Internet protocol addresses on a network.
packet analyzer (sniffer) A computer hardware device or software program designed to detect and record digital information being transmitted over a network.
packet filtering Firewalls can be configured so that they filter out packets sent to specific logical ports in a process.
personal firewall A firewall specifically designed for home networks.
pharming Planting malicious code on a computer that alerts the browser's ability to find web address and that directs users to bogus website.
phishing The process of sending e-mail messages to lure Internet users into revealing personal information such as credit card or Social Security numbers or other sensitive information that could lead to identity theft.
polymorphic virus A virus that changes its virus signature (the binary pattern that makes the virus identifiable) every time it infects a new file. This makes it more difficult for antivirus programs to detect the virus.
pretexting The act of creating an invented scenario (the pretext) to convince someone to divulge information.
program files Files that are used in the running of software programs and that do not store data.
quarantining The placement (by antivirus) of a computer virus in a secure area on the hard drive so that it won't spread infection to other files.
rootkit Programs that allow hacker to gain access to the computer and take almost complete control of it without your knowledge. These programs are designed to subvert normal login procedure to a computer and to hide their operations from normal detection methods
scareware A type of malware that's downloaded onto your computer and that tries to convince you that your computer is infected with a virus or other type of malware.
script A list of commands (mini-programs or macros) that can be executed on a computer without user interaction.
social engineering Any technique that uses social skills to generate human interaction for the purpose of enticing individuals to reveal sensitive information.
spam Unwanted or junk e-mail.
spam filter An option you can select in your e-mail account that places known or suspected spam messages into a folder other than your inbox.
spear phishing A targeted phishing attack that sends e-mails to people known to be customers of a company. Such attacks have a much greater chance of successfully getting individuals to reveal sensitive data.
spyware An unwanted piggyback program that downloads with the software you want to install from the Internet and that runs in the background of your system.
stealth virus A virus that temporarily erases its code from the files where it resides and hides in the active memory of the computer.
surge protector A device that protects computers and other electronic devices from power surges.
time bomb A virus that's triggered by the passage of time or on a certain date.
Trojan horse A computer program that appears to be something useful or desirable (such as a game or a screen saver), but at the same time does something malicious in the background without the user's knowledge.
virus A computer program that attaches itself to another computer program (known as the host program) and attempts to spread itself to other computers when files are exchanged.
virus signature A portion of the virus code that's unique to a particular computer virus and that makes it identifiable by antivirus software.
white-hat hacker (ethical hacker) A hacker who breaks into system just for the challenge of it(who doesn't wish to steal or wreck havoc on the system). Such hackers tout themselves as experts who are performing a service for society by helping company realize the vulnerabilities in system
whole-house surge protector A surge protector that's installed on (or near) the breaker panel of a home and that protects all electronic devices in the home from power surges.
worm A program that attempts to travel between systems through network connections to spread infections. Worms can run independently of host file execution and are active in spreading themselves.
zombie A computer that's controlled by a hacker who uses it to launch attacks on other computer systems.
When a hacker steals personal information with the intent of impersonating another individual to commit fraud, this is known as Identity theft.
Viruses that compress files and then demand money to restore them are known as encryption viruses.
Software designed to close logical ports in your computer is known as a firewall.
Which tool do hackers use to gain access to and take control of your computer? Backdoor programs
A computer that a hacker has gained control of in order to launch DoS attacks is known as a ____________ computer. zombie
Programs that attempt to trick you into buying software by pretending your computer is infected with a virus fall into the class of malware known as scareware.
A backup of all files on your computer, which is essentially a snapshot of exactly how your computer looks at a particular point in time, is known as a image backup.
Software that transmits information about you, such as your Internet surfing habits, back to a third party is known as spyware.
Small text files that some websites automatically store on your computer's hard drive are known as cookies.
A social engineering technique in which you create a scenario to gain someone's trust is known as pretexting.
Created by: TroyIS2241