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Urinary System

Chpt 31 MOB

QuestionAnswer
Urea and uric acid are products of the breakdown of ____. proteins and nucleic acids
Cystitis in women is likely to result from ____. fecal contamination because the openings for the digestive and urinary systems are all within close proximity to each other.
Yolanda has been in the office several times in the last year for cystitis. She tells you she is really tired of "being sick all the time" and asks if there is anything she can do to prevent future episodes of cystitis. Your best response would be: Cleaning the perineal area from front to back helps avoid fecal contamination.
You would anticipate that a patient who has had ____ may develop cystitis. Cystitis may be caused by the placement of a catheter in the bladder.
When taking a urine sample from a patient for testing, you notice it is cloudy. This could indicate ____ Cystitis may cause the urine to be cloudy.
An immune disorder is a possible cause for which disease? Glomerulonephritis may be caused by renal diseases, immune disorders, or bacterial infections
Renal calculi could result from ____. Dehydration can cause overly concentrated urine, which can in turn cause renal calculi to form
Pyelonephritis begins ____. Pyelonephritis is a complicated UTI that begins as a bladder infection.
Which of these urinary diseases is likely to be treated with corticosteroids? Corticosteroids are used to reduce inflammation in glomerulonephritis.
The portion of the renal cortex that extends between the pyramids is the ____ The portion of the renal cortex that extends between the pyramids is the renal column.
Which of the following is the outermost layer of the kidneys? The renal cortex is the outermost layer of the kidneys.
The ____ is the tube that carries urine to the bladder. The ureters carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder.
Which of these is the medial depression of a kidney? The renal sinus is the surface area of the medial concave depression of the kidney.
____ is a hormone that regulates blood pressure. Renin, produced by the kidneys, helps regulate blood pressure.
The kidneys are ____ in position when compared to the peritoneal cavity. The kidneys are retroperitoneal, which means they lie behind the peritoneal cavity
Which of these is a hormone that helps to regulate red blood cell production? Erythropoietin stimulates the red bone marrow to produce red blood cells
The ____ contains the renal artery, renal vein, and ureter. The renal artery, renal vein, and ureter enter the kidney in the area known as the hilum.
The expansion of the ureter inside the kidneys is the ____. The renal pelvis is formed by the expansion of the ureter inside the kidney.
The middle portion of the kidneys is the ____. Renal medulla
A ____ is composed of a mass of capillaries called a glomerulus and is where blood filtration occurs. A renal corpuscle is composed of a mass of capillaries called a glomerulus. Blood filtration occurs in the renal corpuscle.
The group of capillaries that forms the renal corpuscle is called the ____. glomerulus
The ____ join with other, similar structures from other nephrons to form collecting ducts The distal convoluted tubules from several nephrons merge to form collecting ducts.
The ____ is located between the proximal and distal tubules The loop of Henle, or nephron loop, is located between the proximal convoluted tubules and the distal convoluted tubules.
Which section of the tubule is connected to the glomerulus The proximal convoluted tubule is directly attached to the Bowman's capsule and eventually straightens out to become the loop of Henle.
Which structure surrounds each glomerulus? A Bowman's capsule, or glomerular capsule, surrounds each glomerulus.
What are the tiny vessels that surround the tubules? Peritubular capillaries are wrapped around the renal tubules of the nephron
The ____ deliver blood to the peritubular capillaries. efferent arterioles
Which process of urine formation decreases when the blood pressure decreases, and increases when the blood pressure increases? Glomerular filtration depends on filtration pressure, which is largely determined by blood pressure.
During the ____ process of urine formation, substances move from the blood into the renal tubules. During tubular secretion, substances move out of the blood in the peritubular capillaries and into the renal tubules.
During ____, the hormone ADH controls the amount of water the body keeps. Water reabsorption during tubular reabsorption depends on the presence of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and aldosterone.
Which of the following occurs in the renal corpuscles? Glomerular filtration
The filtrate flows into the proximal convoluted tubule during which process of urine formation? In the process of tubular reabsorption, the glomerular filtrate flows into the proximal convoluted tubule, where the body reabsorbs necessary water, nutrients, and ions.
During which process of urine formation do drugs and hydrogen ions enter the filtrate? During tubular secretion, substances such as drugs, hydrogen ions, and waste products move out of the blood in the peritubular capillaries and into the renal tubules.
In which process of urine formation are nutrients, ions, and water returned to the body? In tubular reabsorption, all the substances to be kept pass through the wall of the renal tubule into the blood of the peritubular capillaries.
All substances moved during the ____ process of urine formation will be eliminated in urine. All of the substances secreted during tubular secretion, including drugs, hydrogen ions, and waste products, will be excreted in the urine.
Which urinary system structure takes urine away from the bladder? The urethra is a tube that moves urine from the bladder to the outside world.
The ____ use(s) a peristaltic action to take urine to the bladder. The ureters propel urine toward the bladder through rhythmic muscular contractions called peristalsis.
The detrusor muscle is part of the ____. The detrusor muscle is the smooth muscle in the wall of the bladder.
Which of the following describes acute renal failure? Acute kidney (renal) failure has many causes and risk factors, including various poisons and alcohol abuse
Which of the following does not describe acute kidney failure? Acute kidney (renal) failure is not commonly caused by high blood pressure or diabetes.
Which of the following describes chronic renal failure? Chronic kidney (renal) failure is commonly caused by high blood pressure or diabetes.
Which of the following does not describe chronic renal failure? Unlike acute renal failure, chronic renal failure does not result from poisons or alcohol abuse.
Carol recently had surgery to repair a urinary sphincter. Since then, she has had trouble with urinary incontinence. but she wants to know what she can do to help alleviate this problem. Which of the following is your best reply? Kegel exercises can help strengthen Carol's control of urinary sphincters, which may help speed her recovery.
Donna came to the office today complaining of back pain, fever, nausea, and blood in her urine. She has a recent history of bladder infection. The physician diagnoses pyelonephritis. Which of the following would you expect the physician to prescribe? Pyelonephritis is generally treated with intravenous fluids, pain medication, and antibiotics.
confusion, bloody nasal discharge, and shaking hands, together with the immediate history of drugs and alcohol, point to Acute renal failure
Commonly called kidney stones, renal ________ can become lodged in the ducts within the kidneys or ureters. Calculi
The outermost layer of the kidney is the renal ________. Cortex
The internal floor of the bladder contains three openings, one for the urethra and two for the ureters, that form a triangle called the ________ of the bladder. trigone
The third process of urine formation is ________, during which substances move out of the blood in the peritubular capillaries and into the renal tubules to be excreted in the urine. Tubular secretion
In addition to urea, ________ ________ is a waste product formed by the breakdown of proteins and nucleic acids Uric acid
Created by: Lillieselm