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A&P Exam 4

Reproduction Review

The reproductive cells of the human are often referred to as _________. p.822 gametes
What are the functions of the accessory sex organs in the human for? P.82 Nurture and transport sex cells (gametes) to sites of fertilization.
How many pairs of chromosomes does the normal human have? p.822 46 chromosomes 23 pairs. 22 pairs called autosomes and the 23rd pair is called the sex chromosome.
How many pairs of somatic chromosomes does the normal human have? p.822 44 chromosomes 22 pairs called autosomes.
How many pairs of sex chromosomes does a normal human have? p.822 2 chromosomes 1 pair. Differ between males and females. Females have two x chromosomes and males have one x chromosome and one y chromosome.
What cellular process produces the gametes in the human and how many cellular divisions take place? p.822 Meiosis and two meiotic divisions.
A normal human sperm contains how many somatic chromosomes and how many sex chromosomes? p.826 22 somatic chromosomes and one being a single sex chromosome, it can either be an x or a y.
What process occurs during prophase I of meiosis that helps account for the great amount of genetic diversity in the human race? p.822 Synapsis, pairing of homologous chromosomes. Sometimes the chromatids touch at various points along their lengths.They break in one or more places and exchange parts forming chromatids with new combinations of genetic info,called crossing over.
What fibromuscular cord connects the internal oblique muscle of the human male to the scrotum? p.824 gubernaculum which aids in the movement of the testes. /Cremaster muscle
What do the Sertoli cells do? p.826 aka sustentacular cells are columnar and extend the full thickness of the epithelium, from its base to the lumen of the seminiferous tubule. They support, nourish, and regulate the spermatogenic cells.
What do the Leydig cells do? p.826 aka interstitial cells lie between the seminiferous tubules. They produce and secrete male sex hormone.
In the developing human embryo, the sex of the offspring is determined by which parent? The sex of the offspring is determined by whether the sperm that fertilizes the egg carries the x or y chromosome. The Y chromosome promotes male development.
List the effect of testosterone. p.837 stimulates the formation of the male reproductive organs,enlargement of the testis&accessory organs,development of the male 2ndry sex characteristics,sexual activity, increase rate of cellular metabolism&RBC production,testes to descend into scrotum.
What is the correct path that sperm follows out of the male reproductive tract? Seminiferous tubules(testis),rete testis,epididymis,vas deferens,ampulla,ejaculatory ducts,prostate gland,urethra,external urethral orifice.
Of the male accessory glands, which one helps to neutralize the acidic environment of the urethra and vagina? p.831 The glandular tissue lining the inner wall of the seminal vesicle secretes a slightly alkaline fluid.
For each oogonia, how many ova are produced?p.839 For each oogonia 1 ova and 1 polar bodies are produced.
What hormone causes the completion of meiosis I within the developing primary follicle? p.841 primordial respond to FSH to become primary follicles.Primary follicles under the influence of FSH and LH proceed one per month.
In the Grafian follicle, the oocyte is in what stage of meosis? p.841 (notes) Metaphase II part of the second meiotic division.
What is the correct path for the oocyte to take after ovulation,assuming no fertilization has taken place? p.843 Expulsion of oocyte from ovary, uterine tube (fallopian), uterus, cervix, vagina.
List the functions of the uterus. Table 22.2 p.847 Protects and sustains embryo during pregnancy.
Of the uterine wall layers, which one is shed in menstruation? p.849 Stratum functionalis (notes) The lining tissues (decidua) of the thickened endometrium (book).
What term is used to refer to the external female genitalia? p.846 Vulva, which includes the labia majora (majus), labia minora (minus), the clitoris, and the vestibular glands.
What hormone causes milk to be "let down" in the pregnant human female? p.892 Oxytocin
What is the correct sequence for the female reproductive cycle? (notes) Menstrual phase, preovulatory phase/proliferate phase(together follicular), postovulatory phase(luteal phase)
What hormone causes the release of the oocyte from the Graffian follicle? p.841 LH from the anterior pituitary gland.
What term is used to refer to the follicle left after ovulation? p.849 Corpus luteum
The developing 8 cell stage of reproduction is called a ____________. p.871 Morula.
What are the three parts of the blastocyst?(notes) Trophoblast, inner cell mass, blastocoele
The chorion of the embryo developed from what structure of the blastocyst? p.875 Trophoblast
What is the developing organism called in the first 2 months of development? p.884 Embryo
What is the developing organism called in the 3 through 9 months? p.884 Fetus
What structures arise from the embryonic germ layer, mesoderm? p.876 All types of muscle tissue, bone tissue, bone marrow, blood, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, internal reproductive organs, kidneys, and the epithelial linings of the body cavities.
From which embryonic membrane do the gonads develop? p.876 Mesodermal
What hormones do the corpus luteum produce and what are their functions? p.874 Secretes estrogens and progesterone allowing the uterine wall to grow and develop. It secretes relaxin later in pregnancy it inhibits the smooth muscles in the myometrium, suppressing uterine contractions until the birth process begins.
Which prenatal diagnostic test has the greatest for spontaneous abortion? (google) Chorionic Villi Sample
What type of feedback is labor? p.890 Positive feedback
What hormone is released by the posterior pituitary,that stimulates the uterine contractions? p.890 table 23.5 Oxytocin
Which are the stages of labor? p.891 (notes) Stage 1 Dialation: Latent,active,and transition reach full cervical dilation. Stag 2 Expulsion: Delivery of fetus. Stage 3 Placental: Expulsion of placenta
What hormone aides in fetal lung development? (notes) cortisol
Compared to the adult heart rate, how is the fetal heart rate? (notes) rapid
If a child is born and they have a bluish appearance, not due to blood disorder, what could possibly be the cause of the coloration? p.895 Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA, Foramen Oval isn't closed all the way.
Which hormone causes the pubic symphysis to loosen to help enlarge the birth canal? p.874 Relaxin
A young mother is warned by her doctor not to smoke or drink during her pregnancy, why? p.883 Carbon monoxide crosses the placenta and plugs up the sites on the fetus's hemoglobin molecules that would normally bind oxygen.Chemicals in smoke prevent nutrients from reaching fetus.Linked to spontaneous abortion and poor growth.
The mammary is actually a modified ____________ gland. p.160 Apocrine glands/sudoriferous glands
About what age does spermatogenesis begin and end in the human male? p.827 Spermatogenesis occurs continually in a male, starting at puberty.
About what age does oogenesis start and end in the human female? p.839 & p.850 puberty to late 40's early 50's.
What is the process of milk production called? (notes) Lactation
What hormones are involved in milk production? p.891 Prolactin
What are the parts of the mammary gland? p.852 Alveoli,secondary tubules, mammary ducts Lactiferous sinuses (storage area),lactiferous duct,nipple
List the parts of the female external genitalia. p.846 Labia majora(labium majus),labia minora(labium minus), clitoris, and vestibular glands
List the parts of the male external genitalia. p.832 Scrotum and penis
What are the 3 layers of the uterine wall? p.844 Endometrium, myometrium, and perimetrium
What are the 2 layers of endometrium and their function? (notes) Stratum basalis is the deeper thicker permanent layer. Stratum functionalis will support the fetus if pregnancy occurs if not it is shed.
Describe the female reproductive cycle. See Table 22.4 in book p.850
About how many days is the menstrual cycle for most women? (notes) 24-35 days with 28 days being the average.
Gonadotropin p.836 luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
FSH Males p.836 stimulates the sustentacular cells of the seminiferous tubule to proliferate,grow,mature,and respond to the effects of the male sex hormone testosterone. With testosterone,these cells stimulate spermatogenic cells to undergo spermatogenesis.
Estrogen p.848 secreted by ovaries,adrenal cortices,& placenta(during pregnancy).Stimulate enlargement of accessory organs,vagina,uterus,uterine tubes,and ovaries,as well as external structures;stimulate endometrium to thicken;responsible for 2nd sex characteristics.
LH Males p.836 referred to as interstitial cell-stimulating hormone (ICSH) in males, promotes development of interstitial cells of the testes, and they, in turn secrete male sex hormones(androgens primarily testosterone).
Corpus luteum p.849 & 874 Temporary glandular structure in the ovary. Secretes abundant progesterone and estrogen during second half of reproductive cycle. Promotes unterine wall to grow and develop. Late in pregnancy secretes relaxin.
Corpus albicans p.849 Is the remnant of the corpus luteum if the oocyte released at ovulation is not fertilized.
Parts of uterus (notes) Fundus, body, and cervix
Describe the steps involved in oogenesis. primordial germ cells,diploid oogonia, diploid primary oocyte w/primary follicle,secondary follicle, mature follicle/haploid secondary oocyte, stays suspended in Metaphase II until fertilized. produces 1 ova per one oogonia.
Describe the steps involved in spermatogenesis. p.826 Diploid primary spermatocyte, first meiotic division into two haploid secondary spermatocytes, second meiotic division into two spermatids which mature into sperms cells.
Trace the path of ova released from ovary during ovulation, pelvic cavity, uterine tube, if fertilized becomes imbedded in uterus wall.
What makes up semen? p.832 Sperm and secretions of the seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and bulbourethral glands.
What are the male accessory sex glands and what do they produce? (notes) Seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and bulbourethral glands (Cowpar's gland)
What are the hormones of the male reproductive system? p.836 LH, FSH, Testosterone, dihydrotestosterone,
What are the hormones of the female reproductive system? p.848 LH, FSH, Estrogens, progesterone
How long does it take to produce sperm? (notes) Spermatozoa migrate to the ductus epididymis where they must mature for 10-14 days.
FSH Female p.840 stimulates the maturation of a follicle.
LH Female p.840 stimulates certain ovarian cells to secrete estrogen precursor molecules. Stimulates follicular and thecal cells to expand, forming the corpus luteum.
The irregular ridge on the midline of the scrotum, formed from fusion of the urethral folds during development is the __________. raphe
The leftover portion of the process vaginalis that covers the testes is the __________. tunica vaginalis
In the testis, sperm cells develop in the ____________. seminiferous tubules.
Large cells that nourish developing sperm cells and form the blood-testes barrier are ____________. Sertoli cells
Given these cells: 1. primary spermatocytes 2. secondary spermatocytes 3. Spermatids 4. Spermatogonia 5. sperm cells. Arrange the cells in the order in which they are produced during spermatogenesis. 4,1,2,3,5
A comma-shaped structure on the posterior testis; maturation of sperm cells occurs here: epididymis
From the ejaculatory duct, sperm cells travel directly into the ___________. prostatic part of the urethra
The cap (formed from the corpus spongiosum) over the distal end of the penis is the _________. glans.
The loose fold of skin that covers the glans penis is the __________. prepuce
Erectile columns that form the dorsal surface and sides of the penis are the __________. corpora cavernosa
Which of these structures contributes the greatest percentage to semen? seminal vesicles approximately 60%
This hormone is released from the hypothalamus and stimulates cells in the anterior pituitary. GnRH
__________ , which is secreted by the placenta, stimulates the synthesis and secretion of testosterone before birth. HCG
Testosterone has a negative-feedback effect on ______________. GnRH secretion,FSH secretion,LH secretion
In the male, the process in which sperm cells, secretions of the prostate, and secretions of the seminal vesicles accumulate in the prostatic urethra is called ____________. emission
What is the forceful expulsion of semen from the urethra called? ejacultion
The visceral peritoneum covering the surface of the ovary is ___________. germinal epithelium
At birth, a girl has in her ovaries many __________ that have started meiosis but stopped at prophase I primary oocytes
A primary oocyte divides to produce a(n)_______. secondary oocyte and polar body
The layer of clear, viscous fluid that is deposited around a primary oocyte is the ____________. zona pellucida
The innermost cells of the cumulus mass are called the _____________. corona radiata
In the process of oogenesis, a polar body is formed before and after fertilization
During ovulation, a(n) __________ is released from the ovary secondary oocyte
After ovulation, the granulosa cells of the follicle develop into a glandular structure called the ______________. corpus luteum
The funnel-shaped end of the uterine tube (fallopian tube) is the _____________. infundibulum
The large, superior, rounded portion of the uterus is the ______________. fundus
The innermost layer of the uterus is the __________. endometrium
The superior, domed portion of the vagina is called the __________. fornix
In the female, erectile tissue that corresponds to the corpus spongiosum in the male is the ______________. bulb of the vestibule/clitoris
Concerning the breasts: they are attached to fascia over the pectoralis major muscles by mammary (Cooper's) ligaments
The first episode of menstrual bleeding is called ______________. menarche
During the menstrual cycle, the time between the ending of menses and ovulation is called the _______________. follicular phase
Which of these events is NOT correctly matched with the time when it occurs? LH surge - day 21 (these are correct beginning of menses - day 1,ovulation - day 14,beginning of proliferative phase - day 5,corpus luteum formed - days 14-26)
The hormone responsible for ovulation is ________. LH
In the menstrual cycle, progesterone levels are highest during the secretory phase. The decreased level of progesterone and estrogen is what initiates menses
The cause of menses in the menstrual cycle is decreased progesterone and estrogen secretion by the ovary
A woman with a typical 28-day menstrual cycle is most likely to become pregnant from sexual intercourse occurring on days 9-14.A woman with a typical 28-day menstrual cycle is most likely to become pregnant from sexual intercourse occurring on days 9-14, 5 days before and 1 day after ovulation
While the follicle is developing, a positive-feedback loop occurs in which __________ stimulates the follicle, which increases the secretion of __________, which stimulates GnRH secretion. FSH, estrogen
After fertilization, development of a full-term fetus depends upon release of HCG by the trophoblast to maintain the corpus luteum
During sexual intercourse, oxytocin and __________ both stimulate smooth muscle contractions in the uterus and uterine tubes prostaglandins
The clinical age of the unborn child is about 14 days more than the postovulatory age
Given these stages of development: 1. blastocyst 2. embryo 3. fetus 4. morula 5. zygote Arrange the stages in the order that they occur during development 5,4,1,2,3
Implantation in the endometrium of the uterus occurs about __________ days after fertilization Implantation in the endometrium of the uterus occurs about 7 days after fertilization
In the blastocyst, the cells that develop into the embryo are the inner cell mass
The cells from the embryo that invade the endometrium of the uterus and form lacunae are called syncytiotrophoblast cells
During formation of the embryonic disk, ectoderm is adjacent to the __________ , and endoderm is adjacent to the __________ amniotic cavity, yolk sac
Given these embryonic developments: 1. neural crest cells break away 2. neural folds form 3. neural plate forms 4. neural tube forms List the events in the order in which they occur in the developing embryo 3,2,1,4
Neuroectoderm cells become the brain and spinal cord
Somites and somitomeres give rise to all of these structures EXCEPT the heart. Somites and somitomeres give rise to skeletal muscle, part of the skull, and the vertebral column, but not the heart
The pericardial, pleural and peritoneal cavities all develop from the celom
All of these structures develop as evaginations (outpocketings) from the early digestive tract EXCEPT the kidneys. The liver, lungs, pancreas, and urinary bladder develop as evaginations from the early digestive tract, the kidneys do not
During development, the period of organogenesis is between days 14 and 60
The bones of the face develop from __________ cells, whereas the rest of the skeleton develops from __________ cells neural crest, mesoderm
The central cavity of the neural tube becomes the central canal of the spinal cord & ventricles of the brain
The epidermis of the skin develops from __________ , whereas the dermis of the skin develops from __________ ectoderm, mesoderm
The heart begins to beat approximately __________ days after fertilization 21-25
The only organ system formed from all three germ layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm) is the endocrine system
During development of the heart, blood vessels form from blood islands on the surface of the yolk sac.
During development of the urinary system, the cloaca becomes divided to form the rectum and urethra
In the female, the mesonephric duct system disappears.The mesonephric duct system develops into the ductus deferens,seminal vesicles, and the prostate gland in the male under the influence of testosterone produced by the testes.In the female,there are no testes to produce testosterone,so disapears
Which of these structures is the adult kidney? metanephros
In males the descent of the testes into the scrotum is complete about __________ months after conception 8
In males, the mesonephric duct system forms the ductus deferens, seminal vesicles, and prostate gland
During development of the female reproductive system, the urogenital folds become the __________ , whereas the labioscrotal swellings become the __________. labia minora, labia majora
The embryo becomes a fetus approximately __________ days after fertilization 60
The postovulatory age of the fetus at parturition is approximately 38 weeks
During the third stage of labor, the placenta is delivered
The onset of labor is stimulated by The onset of labor is stimulated by increased estrogen secretion by the placenta, decreased progesterone secretion by the placenta, increased prostaglandin synthesis by the placenta, and increased glucocorticoid secretion by the fetus
During parturition, a positive-feedback mechanism occurs when __________ stimulates the secretion of __________ , which results in uterine contractions. uterine stretch, oxytocin
The short artery that connects the pulmonary trunk and the aorta in the fetus, and which closes shortly after birth, is the ductus arteriosus
All of these circulatory changes occur after birth EXCEPT the umbilical vein becomes the falciform ligament of the liver
__________ stimulates milk production, but __________ stimulates milk letdown Prolactin, oxytocin
After parturition, the decrease in __________ allows milk production to occur estrogen and progesterone
Which of these tissues continues to divide throughout an individual's lifetime? epithelium
Which of these processes are involved in aging? Free radicals, immune system changes, a decline in mitochondrial DNA function, and the cross-linking of collagen fibers are all involved in aging.
In a normal karyotype, there is (are) __________ pair(s) of autosomal chromosomes, and __________ pair(s) of sex chromosomes 22, 1
An individual with XXXXXY sex chromosomes develops anatomically as a male
The gene expression that occurs when two alleles combine to produce an effect without either of them being dominant or recessive is called codominance
If the gene "A" is normal, and "a" is a gene for albinism, predict the likelihood that a couple, both with genotypes "Aa", will have an albino child 1/4
If a man with hemophilia and a woman who is normal (has no genes for hemophilia) have a son, what is the probability that the son will have hemophilia? 0 (sons cannot have hemophilia)
What is the function of the prostate secretions? the thin milky fluid is a slightly acidic secretion that also contains citrate,a nutrient for sperm and prostate specific antigen (PSA),an enzyme which helps liquefy semen following ejaculation.
The _________ forms the maternal part of placenta, while the ________ forms the embryonic part of the placenta. Decidua basalis and chorion
What are the functions of the trophoblast in the blastocyst once it enters the uterus? Secretes enzymes that allow the blastocyst to burrow into the uterine wall. Develops into chorion(one of fetal membranes). Secretes hCG, which causes the corpus luteum, to continue to secrete estrogens and progesterones to maintain pregnancy.
Following implantation what is the endometrium known as? deciduas
What does the deciduas consist of? Decidua basalis (portion between embryo and stratum basalis of the uterus), Decidua capsularis(portion between embryo and uterine cavity), and Decidua parietalis (remain endometrium).
After implantation the inner cell mass of the blastocyst differentiates into what primary germ layers? ectoderm, endoderm, mesoderm
Cell migration that establish the 3 germ layers are called __________. gastrulation
What forms from the endoderm? epithelial lining of most internal body structures, such a the GI tract, the respiratory tract, etc. and the epithelium of many glands.
What forms from the ectoderm? skin and nervous system
What are the embryonic membranes? Yolk sac, amnion,chorion, allantois
Yolk sac early site of blood cell formation, contains cells that migrate to ovaries or testes differentiate into oogonia or spermatogonia
Amnion surrounds embryo & creates cavity filled with amniotic fluid which the embryo floats. Acts as a chock absorber & helps regulate fetal body temp. embryonic cells can be sloughed off and examined by amniocentesis.
Chorion forms the embryonic part of the placenta also surrounds the fetus outside the amnion.
Allantois Its blood vessels help form the connection between mother and baby
What is a chromatid? Two DNA strands of each replicated homologous chromosome.
What is a centromere? Where the chromatids of a replicated chromosome attach
The diploid oogonia develop into diploid _____________ before birth. primary oocytes
The cells begin __________ but do not complete it at this time. reduction division. The primary oocytes are held in prophase I until puberty.
Prophase I Each chromosome consists of 2 chromatids connected by a centromere.Duplicated chromosomes shorten and thicken, nucleolus and nuclear membrane disappear, mitotic apparatus is built. Synapsis. The 4 chromatids make up a tetrad. Crossing over.
Metaphase I Chromosomes line up on the equator of the mitotic apparatus, with homologous pairs of chromosomes together
Anaphase I members of homologous pairs move to opposite poles. Centromeres do not split, so chromatid pairs remain together
Telophase I one of each homologous pair reaches opposite poles of the cell and cytokinesis divides the original cell into 2 cells
Meiosis II equatorial division this process continues in each of the 2 cells left at the end of meiosis I. With no further replication of DNA, the cell forms a new mitotic spindle and proceeds through the four phases
Prophase II same events as prophase I, except no synapsis or crossing over
Metaphase II chromatid pairs to equator of mitotic spindle
Anaphase II this time the centromeres split and one of each chromatid pair moves toward opposite poles of the cell
Telophase II cell divides into 2 cells
Meosis I reduction division---begins after chromosomes are replicated
What is the function of the bulbourethral gland? secretes a mucus like fluid. This fluid is released in response to sexual stimulation and lubricates the end of the penis in preparation for sexual intercourse (coitus). But females secrete mot of the lubricating fluids during intercourse.
Created by: reelemus



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