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LA History

LAH History Ch 11

Who burned much of central Louisiana? Union General Banks
Who did the Union and Confederate armies take food from? The civilaians
What happened when the courthouses were burned? Parish records lost or destroyed
Who were the freedmen? Former slaves who wanted a better future Freed slaves lacked land and resources to rebuild a prosperous new life
While the northern states experienced an economic boom, what happened to the war town South? War-torn South struggled to survive
What does the term reconstruction mean? Refers to the steps taken to restore the southern states to the Union and rebuild the South
Did people in the North agree on how to rebuild the South? No. All Northerners didn’t agree on how to rebuild the South
What was Lincoln’s 10 percent plan? Lincoln’s “10 Percent Plan” allowed states to rejoin union after 10 percent of 1860 voters signed loyalty oath
What did Lincoln’s 1864 Constitution do? Louisiana’s 1864 Constitution ended slavery, but forbade freedmen from voting
Why did Lincoln reconsider allowing blacks to vote? Free men of New Orleans traveled to Washington D.C. to ask Lincoln for their right to Vote. Lincoln was impressed with their arguments and considered their request
Who assassinated President Lincoln? John Wilkes booth
How did Lincoln’s assassination affect the South? Lincoln’s assassination brought harsher reconstruction conditions to Louisiana
Who’s Reconstruction plan did Vice President Andrew Johnson try to continue? Abraham Lincoln’s
When did Vice President Andrew Johnson readmitted Southern states to the Union? When they approved the 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (which abolished Slavery)
What did the Republican “Radicals” wanted to do with the land owned by Confederate officers? Give it to the freed slaves
What did Johnson do to the former Confederate officers? pardoned, them allowing them to keep their land
Who were the radicals? Republicans who had the most extreme ideas about Reconstruction
Who were elected in the first statewide election following the war? Many former Confederates elected to the Louisiana legislature
How did Confederates make their political views clear? Hired a door keeper doorkeeper, an armless Confederate veteran, manned the door in a Confederate uniform
Who were the Louisianan Republicans mostly made of? Northerners, former slaves, and free people of color
Who is James M. Wells? Governor, Unionist, who had supported the Union during the war
What did General Banks ask some of the free men of New Orleans to do? Talk to the plantation slaves and ask what they hoped the Union victory would bring them
What are some things that the plantation slaves requested? Former slaves sought security, education, and united families, reasonable wages, no abuse
What did some of the former slaves do now that they were free? Many freedmen left plantations and sought work in the state’s towns, found work as l laborers and craftsmen, some returned the plantations
What were the black codes? Black codes limited the freedmen’s movements, actions, and conduct; included a section about rudeness to white people
What were the freedmen required to sign? Freedmen were made to sign one-year labor contracts or face arrest or public work
What did the federal government established in 1865? Freedman’s Bureau
What was the Freedman’s Bureau purpose? Provide aid-food, clothing, and basic medical care to former slaves and other needy southerners. Schools
What did agents around the state do? handled work contracts between freedmen and planters
What did some towns add to regulate the movement of the freedman? More laws and regulations
What did the northerners do to prevent southerners from placing limits of the freedom of former slaves? Congress passed the 14 amendment (citizenship, legal rights, and the right to vote)Those who didn’t ratify the amendment would have their representation in congress Reduced
Did southern states ratify the amendment? no
What was going to be discussed at the Constitutional Convention? Delegates would met and discuss adding the right to vote to the constitution
What happened at the Constitutional Convention? Riots in New Orleans in 1866 ended a planned Constitutional Convention, which might have assured the freedmen the right to vote
How did Congress believe the South would have to give the freedman their freedom The south would have to be forced
What did the Joint Committee report the feeling was toward the emancipated slaves Vindictive and malicious hatred
What as the Reconstruction Act of 1867? It placed the southern states under strict control (5 military districts were set up and each was commanded by a U.S. Army General.
When would the control of the southern states be removed When they ratified the 14th amendment which gave citizenship and rights to former slaves and write a new state constitution
Which states were apart of the District 5? Who was the military commander LA and apart of Texas-General Philip Sheridan
Why did he remove Governor Wells from office He was uncooperative and refused to give blacks the right to vote
What did Military Reconstruction require? Stricter loyalty oaths
How long was Louisiana under military control? 10 years
Could republicans participate in the political process no
What did Louisiana do in 1868? Wrote the new constitution required by 1867 Reconstruction Act
Who was the first black to be elected to the statewide office? Oscar J. Dun
What was the name of the newspaper that became a voice for African American Rights? The New Orleans tribune
What were the newcomers from the north called? Carpetbaggers
Who was Henry Clay Warmouth and what was he know as? a former Union officer, was elected Republican governor in 1868, was known as “Louisiana’s Carpetbagger Governor”
Who were the Scalawags? Local white unionists who joined the controlling Republicans
Who were the Redeemers? Self-described “Conservatives,” mostly former Confederates, sought to regain pre-war political power
Who were the Knights of White Camilla? a masked group, intimidated voters to keep freedmen from voting
Who won the majority of the election votes in 1868? Democrats
What did Governor Warmouth appointed a board to do? throw out votes found to be fraudulent (unfair)
Why was Governor Warmouth impeached? was charged with election corruption
Who became acting governor in December 1872, during impeachment hearings against Governor Warmouth? P.B.S. Pinchbeck
Who the first African American governor of any state? P.B. S. Pinchbeck
What is anarchy? Absence of government or a state of lawlessness
Why did Congress pass the Enforcement Act in 1870? it made it a crime to interfere with the rights of a citizens
What caused the Colfax Riot? A black republican and white democrat both claimed the office of sheriff Both sides armed themselves and fought for control of the courthouse-lead to a riot And 50 blacks died
What was the Unification Movement plan to do? Push for the right to vote for freedman and develop some arrangement between whites and blacks for sharing political offices
Did this plan work? Why or why not? No because there were to many conflicting opinion (republican oppose because they would lose power, democrats did not want to consider freedman being elected)
What did the White state its purpose was? The protection of our own race against the encroachment of the Negro and the removal from the office of who “lord it over us.”
What did working whites not want blacks to do? Take jobs from whites
Who did the White league intend to restore political power to? Democrats
What was the term given to the White League’s tactics? Bulldozing
What was the Battle of Liberty Place? 4000 metropolitan police and 8000 members of the white league fought-white league was able to seize new Orleans city hall and the state house?
Who was sent to restore order? Federal troops arrived to restore order
What Grant say the public opinion no longer favored? Military force to keep an unpopular state in power
What did the republicans agree to do for Louisiana? Remover federal troops
Who was elected President in 1876? Rutherford B. Hayes
After the Reconstruction was over, who now controlled the state government in LA? Democrats
What is collateral Something of value pledged as security for a loan
How did brokers find workers? Charged a fee for finding workers
What is sharecropping? The planters had provide the land, the tools, and the cabin
How did most workers and planters buy a year’s worth of supplies? Bought it on credit
What was the crop lien system? The store owner agreed to take part of the crop in payment at the of the year
What are some ways the economy began to improve? Sawmills were set up to handle the huge old cypress trees being cut in the swamps Spanish moss was baled for sale Hunters brought ducks and other game to market in the cities and towns
What helped children forget about the war years? circus
How the riverboats did provided entertainment and excitement? Scheduled races
What were some other forms of entertainment in LA? Theatres, baseball
What was a new social organization that had a community person? Volunteer fire departments
Who taught the freedman how to read and write? Teachers from the north
Who helped provide for the needs of the freedman after the war? Northern churches
Who were the first colleges for African Americans started by? Missionaries
Why was the growth of the African American churches an important development? African American did not have their own churches, they attended white churches and were expected to sit in special seats. Now they had a church of their own.
Created by: NoelleBordelon