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Ancient Greece II

Study Guide

TermDefinition
The Peloponnesian War Cause: Sparta grew jealous over Athens prosperity and declared war. Result: Sparta wins BUT city-states are divided and weakened by the war. Philip II of Macedonia sees this as the opportunity to take over Greece.
Pericles Famous political and military leader of Athens during the Golden Age. Responsible for rebuilding the Parthenon and refining the Athenian democratic system.
Alexander the Great Son of Phillip II, at age 20 became king of Macedonia and created largest empire in the world. Wanted to spread his love of Greek culture to his conquered lands.
Alexander the Great and his accomplishments Kept control by -allowing conquered people to continue to practice their own religions and naming himself a god. -He used Greek cities as a model for new cities in his empire complete with an agora, theater, temple etc. -Most famous of his cities was
Alexander the Great and more of his accomplishments -Encouraged his soldiers to marry Persian women -Forced all government officials and soldiers to speak Greek -He became ill, died and empire fell apart as Generals fought for control.
Alexandria Famous ancient port city in Egypt. Established by Alexander the Great. Ancient center of knowledge.
Socrates Famous Greek philosopher who taught students to question the facts and point out the weaknesses/strengths of the government and society's values; his teaching method (the Socratic method) is still used today.
Plato Socrate's most famous student - continued Socrates' methods and founded world famous school
Thucydides "Father of Scientific History" --wrote non-biased factual accounts of events.
Herodotus "Father of History" --first to write accurate accounts of events BUT accounts were biased (favored the Greeks)!
Pythagoras "Father of Numbers" famous for his Pythagorean Theorem which is still used today to measure the unknown distance between the two sides of a right triangle.
Parthenon Athena's temple on top of the Acropolis. Rebuilt by Pericles after the Persians burned it down.
Doric Architecture Oldest style which had a simple capital and no base
Ionic Architecture Middle child, slightly more decorative than Doric. The capital was shaped like scroll (called a volute) and had a base.
Corinthian Architecture Youngest type, extremely decorative capitals detailed with acanthus leaves--had a base. Romans used this style more than the Greeks.