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Cardiovascular Syste

Anatomy & Physiology

blood fluid connective tissue that is regenerated continuously and is responsible for transporting gases, nutrients, and hormones throughout the cardiovascular system
blood vessels form a circuit away from and back to the heart and include arteries, veins, and capillaries
arteries transport blood away from the heart
veins transport blood toward the heart
capillaries permeable microscopic vessels between arteries and veins that serves as sites of exchange between blood and body tissues
blood components erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets, and plasma
erythrocytes (red blood cells) transport respiratory gases in the blood
leukocytes (white blood cells) defend against pathogens
platelets help clot blood and prevent blood loss from damaged vessels
plasma fluid portion of the blood and it contains plasma protein and dissolved solutes
how blood transports transports formed elements and dissolved molecules and ions, carriers oxygen from from and carbon dioxide to the lungs, and transports nutrients, hormones, heat and waste products
"delivery service" for the body blood
how blood regulates body temperature absorbs heat from the body cells, released from blood at body surface as blood is transported through vessels of the skin
how blood regulates the pH absorbs acids and bases from body cells and contains chemical buffers that bind and release hydrogen atoms
how blood regulates the fluid balance water lost in the urine, skin, exchange of fluid between blood plasma and interstitial fluid, and contains proteins and ions
what blood regulates boy temperature, pH, and fluid balance
blood as protection contains leukocytes, plasma proteins and other materials that help protect the body from harmful substances and contains platelets and plasma proteins that help protect the body against blood loss
color of the blood depends on oxygenation status
color of oxygen-rich blood bright red
color of oxygen-poor blood dark red, appears blue in superficial veins (due to the way that blue light is reflected back to the eyes)
volume of blood in the body about 5 liters in an adult with males having slightly more than females, and it is important to keep this normal to maintain blood pressure
viscosity of blood 4 to 5 times more viscous than water (thicker), but varies depending on the amount of dissolved substances in blood (i.e. increased if erythrocytes increased and increased if amount of fluid decreases)
plasma concentration relative concentration of solutes in plasma, determines whether fluids move into or out of plasma by osmosis (i.e. during dehyrdration plasma hypertonic and fluid moves into the plasma from surrounding tissues)
temperature of blood 1 degree higher than measured body temperature (98.6) and warms area through which it travels
centrifuged blood separates liquid and cellular components of whole blood
three components of centrifuged blood erythrocytes, buffy coat, and plasma
erythrocytes lower layer of centrifuged blood that is 44% of the sample
buffy coat middle slightly gray-white layer that is composed of leukocytes and platelets and makes up less than 1% of the sample
plasma straw colored liquid at the top of the tube that makes up the remaining 55% of the sample
plasma composed of water (92%), plasma protein (7%), and dissolved molecules and ions (1%), and it is extracellular fluid that is similar in composition to interstitial fluid with the exception that the protein concentration is lower in the interstitial fluid
formed elements erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets that make up 45% of whole blood
erythrocytes (aka red blood cells) small, flexible, formed elements that lack a nucleus and cellular organelles, have biconcave disc structure, have a plasma membrane with enclosed hemoglobin molecules, and transport oxygen and carbon dioxide between tissues & lungs
hemoglobin red-pigmented protein that transports oxygen and carbon dioxide (can be termed oxygenated or deoxygenated)
oxygenated describes hemoglobin that is maximally loaded with oxygen
deoxygenated describes hemoglobin when some oxygen is lost
surface antigens project from plasma membrane of erythrocyte and have implications for blood transfusions and pregnancy
blood types A, B, AB, and O
ABO blood group consists of two surface antigens, A and B and presence or absence determines ABO blood type
type A erythrocytes with surface antigen A
type B erythrocytes with surface antigen B
type AB erythrocytes with both antigens
type O erythrocytes with neither antigens
antigens are accompanied with... specific antibodies
anti-B antibodies react with... surface antigen B
anti-A antibodies react with... surface antigen A
Type A blood pairs with... anti-B antibodies
Type B blood pairs with... anti-A antibodies
type AB blood pairs with... neither antibodies
type O blood pairs with... both antibodies
agglutination clumping of erythrocytes and occurs when a person is transfused with blood of an incompatible type and this can blood blood vessels and prevent normal circulation or result in hemolysis (stresses importance of pairing a recipient with a compatible donor)
hemolysis rupture of erythrocytes and can cause organ damage
Rh factor (surface antigen D) another surface erythrocyte antigen whose presence depends on Rh blood type (when present, termed Rh positive and when absent, termed Rh negative)
antibodies to Rh factor... appear when Rh negative person is exposed to Rh positive blood (i.e. in an inappropriate blood transfusion)
ABO and Rh types usually reported together (i.e. type AB and Rh+ reported as AB+ and type A and Rh- reported as A-)
leukocyte characteristics help defend body against pathogens, contain nucleus and cellular organelles, do not contain hemoglobin, and are motile and flexible
platelet's characteristics membrane-enclosed cellular fragments without nucleus, serve important role in blood clotting, normally 150,000 to 400,000 per cubic millimeter blood, circulate for 8 to 10 days, and 30% stored in spleen
hemostasis process of blood clotting in which the flow of blood through injured blood vessel wall is stopped and there are three overlapping phases
three phases of hemostasis vascular spasm, platelet plug formation, and coagulation phase
vascular spasm sudden constriction of blood vessels, first phase in response to blood vessel injury, limits blood able to leak from vessel, continues into the next phase, lasts from few to many minutes, and involves greater vasoconstriction with greater vessel damage
platelet plug example of positive feedback, formed from platelets arriving at injury site
platelet plug under normal conditions endothelial wall is smooth, coated with prostacyclin, and activates pathway inhibiting platelet activation (so this doesn't form because there is no wound)
platelet plug when vessel is damaged collagen fibers in vessel wall exposed, platelets sticking her, and closing off of injury due to this (forms because there is an injury
blood clotting coagulation
blood clotting most important and complex component of hemostasis and involves clot with an insoluble protein network composed of fibrin that traps elements of blood (erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets, and plasma proteins)
substances involved in coagulation calcium, clotting factors, platelets, and vitamin K
clotting factors most inactive enzymes produced in the liver
vitamin K fat-soluble vitamin, coenzyme
intrinsic pathway initiated by platelets recognizing damage to inside of vessel wall and take 3 to 6 minutes
extrinsic pathway initiated by damage outside of vessel and usually takes about 15 seconds
initiation of coagulation cascade two separate pathways to initiate blood clotting (intrinsic and extrinsic pathways and they converge to the common pathway)
coagulation cascade positive feedback mechanism (events continue until clot is formed) and size of clot is limited (some thrombin trapped withn clot and some thrombin degraded by blood enzymes)
Created by: Nicolekr



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