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LA History

LAH Key Concepts Chapter 4- Government

Popular sovereignty- the idea that political authority belongs to the people.
U.S. Constitution: Principles Popular sovereignty- Respect for individual liberties Checks and balances
Due process of law- the fair application of the law.
Separation of powers- the division of the federal government into 3 branches.
Consent of the governed – the political theory that people allow themselves to be governed. Citizens should have the final say.
The three branches of the government- Executive- legislative- judicial-
Executive- carries out the laws
legislative- makes the laws
judicial- interprets the laws.
Key positions within each branch of government Executive- President, Vice President, Attorney General, Secretary of State, Cabinet positions.
Key positions within each branch of government Legislative- Speaker of the House of Representatives, president of the Senate, House and Senate majority leaders.
Key positions within each branch of government Judicial- Supreme Court justices, chief justice, federal district judge
Qualifications and terms: President and Vice President- 35 years old, Natural born citizen of the United States, resident of the U.S. for 14 years. 4 year terms- 2 term limit
Qualifications and terms:Senate- 30 years old, resident of the state you want to represent, citizen of the U.S. for at least 9 years prior to the election, 6 year terms
Qualifications and terms: House of Representatives- 25 years old, resident of the state you want to represent, citizen of the U.S. for 7 years, 4 year terms
Qualifications and terms: Supreme Court Justices- Appointed by the President, no term limit.
Federalism- the division of power between the national and state governments.
Powers of the federal government according to the U.S. Constitution- print money, establish a postal service, approve treaties, declare war, raise an army.
Concurrent powers- powers shared by the federal government and state governments. Examples: establish courts, tax citizens, pass laws, enforce laws.
Types of government: absolute or constitutional monarchy- direct democracy- republic- oligarchy- autocracy- totalitarian dictatorship-
absolute or constitutional monarchy- political system in which the head of state is a king or queen ruling to the extent allowed by a constitution
direct democracy- form of democracy and theory of civics wherein all citizens can directly participate in the decision-making process.
republic- a state in which the supreme power rests in the body of citizens entitled to vote and is exercised by representatives chosen directly or indirectly by them.
oligarchy- a form of government in which all power is vested in a few persons or in a dominant class or clique; government by the few.
autocracy- place ruled by one person: a country governed by a single ruler who has unlimited power.
totalitarian dictatorship- totalitarian dictatorship- Complete control by the government. A modern autocratic government in which the state involves itself in all facets of society, including the daily life of its citizens.
Two-Party system- U.S. has this- Democrats and Republicans
Major purpose of government: 1. Ensure domestic tranquility- 2. Provide for the common defense- 3. Promote the general welfare- 4. Secure the blessings of liberty- 5. Make laws-
Ensure domestic tranquility- peace on the home front
Provide for the common defense- military to protect us from foreign threats
Promote the general welfare- programs to provide for those in need
Secure the blessings of liberty- protect the rights and freedoms granted to the citizens of America
Make laws- to avoid chaos and create stability
Virginia Plan- (large state plan) Proposed at the Constitutional Convention- the national government would have supreme power and a legislative branch would have 2 houses determined by population.
New Jersey Plan- (small state plan)- Create a one house legislature with equal representation instead of representation based on population.
Great Compromise- Two houses of Congress were formed. In the House of Representatives a state’s population would determine representation. In the Senate representation would be equal- 2 senators regardless of population or size.
3/5 Compromise- Allowed a slave state to count 3 for every 5 of its slaves toward the state’s total population when determining representation. Gave the south more representation in the House of Rep. than if no slaves were counted, but less than if all were counted.
Checks and Balances- keeps one branch from becoming too powerful. Pres can veto laws and can be impeached. Congress can override vetoes with a 2/3 vote and declares war but Pres is the commander in chief. Pres appoints Supreme Court justices, but Congress must approve.
Federalists Those in favor of the new Constitution. (A. Hamilton, J. Madison, G. Washington, J. Jay, B. Franklin) .
Federalist Papers- collection of articles written in favor of ratification (approval) of the U.S. Constitution. 9 out of 13 states needed for ratification.
Anti-federalists- Opposed ratification of the Constitution. (George Mason, Samuel Adams, Patrick Henry) Feared the new constitution would threaten civil rights like freedom of speech, the press, religion etc.
Bill of Rights 1st 10 amendments of the U.S. Constitution.
What does Bill of Rights do? Explains the rights and freedoms granted to the U.S. citizens. Included in the Constitution to satisfy the anti-federalist by specifying that their rights would be protected.
1st amendment-. Freedom of speech, religion, press, assembly, petition.
Amendments- official change, correction or addition to a law or constitution.
How a Bill Becomes a Law- proposed by the people, introduced by the House of Representatives, debated, if passed it goes to the Senate. Senate can pass it or kill it. If passed it goes to the President he can sign it or veto it. if he signs it, it becomes a law.
Qualifications and requirements for U.S. citizenship- Birth in the U.S., Birth to American parents abroad, naturalization (residency, citizenship test, oath of allegiance)
Rights First Amendment freedoms, due process, voting
Responsibilities military service, jury duty, paying taxes, obeying laws, holding public office, voting.
Impeach to bring formal charges against an elected official
Veto to cancel or reject- Presidential power
Pardon Presidential power to grant freedom from punishment to persons convicted of federal crimes or facing criminal charges.
Due Process one’s rights when accused of violating a law- law must be fairly applied.
Draft System of required service in the armed forces.
Interest Group Group of people who share common interests for a political action.
Government an organization in a society with the authority to make, carry out, and enforce laws
Parish geographical divisions of the Catholic Church; later formed Louisiana’s governmental divisions. Louisiana is the only state with parishes
constitution - a document that explains the broad purposes of a government, describes its organization, and states its powers
Preamble the introduction to the constitution where the people agree on the power and purpose of government
Federalism a system of government where the national and state governments share powers; power is divided between a central government and various territorial subdivision
Limited Government a government in which a constitution, statement of rights, or other laws define the limits of those in power. The United States have a limited government (3 branches)
Unlimited Government a government in which control is held solely by the ruler and his or her appointees
Concurrent Powers powers that may be exercised by both national Government and state governments
Describe how Louisiana’s government was affected by France and Spain and what are Louisiana’s civil laws based on? French and Spanish civil codes which explain how individuals deal with each other. The Judicial decisions are based on these written laws.
When did British law come to Louisiana? after the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Laws in the United States were based on the British common law system.
What is the purpose for a democratic government? It is established by the people, and the authority to govern comes from the people. It is organized to protect the individual rights of the people and to promote the common good
What are the 3 functions of a constitution? a. Explains the purpose of government b. Describes its organization c. States its powers
What powers are shared by the federal government and the state government? The power to collect taxes The power to collect taxes
Checks and Balances a system where each branch of government can use its powers to keep the other branches from misusing their powers
Veto to refuse to approve legislation
Attorney General the primary legal officer for the state
Bicameral describes a legislative body made up of two bodies or houses reapportionment – the process of revising the boundaries of legislative districts in order to achieve relatively equal populations
constituent a person represented by an elected official
Civil Law a law that deals with the relationship between and among individuals
Criminal Law laws intended to protect society from the wrongdoing of an individual
Jury a group of citizens chosen to hear evidence on a legal case and to make a decision based on the evidence presented
List the members of the executive branch Governor, Lieutenant Governor, Attorney General, Secretary of State, and Treasurer
List the members of the legislative branch House of Representatives and Senate
List the members of the judiciary branch District Courts, Courts of Appeal, Louisiana Supreme Court
List the steps of how a bill becomes a law. You may want to use a flow map. introduced,sent to committee for review – Committee holds hearings ,debate and vote. passed-to Senate, introduced and to committee, debate and vote. passed goes to governor. signed becomes law . vetoed legis. may override veto by 2/3 vote in each chamber
Parish Seat the location of the parish government and courthouse, usually in the center of the parish. Tangipahoa Parish is located in Amite.
Police Jury a group of citizens who are chosen by voters to represent them on the parish level
Home Rule political subdivisions to govern themselves
Home Rule Charter allows a community to organize its local government in a form other than a police jury, they include an elected parish president, and an elected parish council and an administration.
municipality – cities and towns located within the parish
Who passes the local laws for the parish? How many members does our parish have? The parish council or police jury. We have 10 districts in Tangipahoa Parish
What services are provided through taxes? Roads, public buildings, (jails and courthouses)
Police Jury – raise money for parish expenses
Sheriff – chief law enforcement officer, parish tax collector
Assessor – determines the value of property for tax purposes
District attorney – chief prosecutor who represents the parish’s people in criminal cases
Clerk of court – maintains the court records, and other official records such as marriage licenses, divorce papers, passports
What is the purpose of the school board? Receive money from the state for the education of children in the districts, collect funds through taxes called bonds, and supervises the school systems.
Created by: NoelleBordelon