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LA History

LAH Key Concepts for Chapter 5

archaeologist a scientist who studies the items left behind by ancient peoples to determine how they lived
midden garbage mound left by prehistoric people
Nomad a wanderer; a person with no settled home
Atlatl a throwing stick with weights used by prehistoric people to throw spears with more force for farther distances
Mound a raised area created by prehistoric peoples and thought to be used for ceremonial or burial purposes
Artifact an item left behind ancient peoples stone, bone, pottery, tools, cave paintings, weavings, skeletons, items buried with people, and trash
Agriculture Farming
temple mound a mound built by prehistoric Indians and used for religious purposes
Paleo Indians Date: Food: Clothing: oldest known Indians in Louisiana date back to 10,000 B.C. crossed beringia followed animals for food and clothing. They ate a variety of plants and animals including mastodans. Spear points are found throughout Louisiana
Meso Indians Date: Food: Homes: 7500 B.C. ate animals such as deer, rabbit, birds, fish, clams, reptiles, seeds, roots, nuts, and fruits still nomadic but stayed in a place longer. They built houses of branches and thatch. They built mounds.
What are some of the artifacts left behind by the Meso Indians? Artifacts included bowls, jewelry, baskets, harpoons, bone needles, fish hooks, and shell ornaments
Early Neo Indians Date: Tools: Village/Housing 1000 B.C. built villages for seasonal living, developed the bow and arrow
Early Neo Indians Food: Decorations: diet was grapes, palmetto, pigweed, amaranth, fish, deer, and shellfish. They had elaborate ornaments, copper ear spools, bracelets, beads, animal tooth pendants, pottery pipes and figurines.
Late Neo Indians Date: Village: Housing: 800 A.D. to 1500’s built villages near waterways, More permanent housing made of wattle and daub (sticks covered with mud) They lived in one place year round, they became farmers.
Late Neo Indians: Food Temples: They ate beans, corn, squash, and pumpkins. They built temples on top of their mounds
What places give clues about the lives of the ancient people? Where they prepared food, made tools, built shelters, and conducted ceremonies
Why was the development of the bow and arrow so important? It made hunting easier
What was the purpose of the temple mounds? It is where religious ceremonies were held immunity natural resistance to disease
tribe a group of people who share common ancestry, language, name, and a way of living
a group of people who share common ancestry, language, name, and a way of living a formal agreement between two or more nations
totem a tribal symbol; an animal, plant, or natural object serving as a symbol of a clan or family
What is considered the beginning of the historic period? When the Europeans came to America and began keeping records
Clan a group of people who believe themselves related by blood
Who was the first European to travel through Louisiana? Hernando deSoto
Why was the Native American population decreased by 80 % from the time of Spanish exploration and French exploration? Diseases such as influenza, measles, smallpox, and cholera
Atakapa Location: LanguaGames Mens Jobs: Location:Southwest Prairie Region, they practiced cannibalism on defeated enemies. language- Atakapa Games: they played chunkey and stickball, Mens jobs: men were hunters and warriors Story Telling and traditional medicine
AtakNapa: Houses: Clothing: Men, Women Houses-were brush shelters (grass and reeds around a wooden frame Clothing: Men wore breech cloths, hair in Mohawk, women wore wrap around skirts of deerskin or woven fiber, they wore moccasins. Used porcupine hair roaches. Both men and women had tri
Atakapa: Food: Tools: They used dogs as pack animals, they built canoes, Food: They ate fish, oysters, shrimp, crab, deer, buffalo, alligator, fruits, nuts, and honey. They made bows and arrows and pottery from red clay.
Natchez – Location: Ruled by: Language: Location: northeastern Mississippi Floodplain regions Ruled by: The Natchez king was called the Great Sun Great Sun usually had to listen to the opinions of a council of warriors, priests, and other important Natchez men Language: Natchez language
Natchez Games/Activities: Children went hunting and fishing with their fathers they had corn husk dolls, toys and games to play. Teenage boys played a spear-throwing game called chunkey.
Natchez Roles Men were higher-ranking than women, held leadership positions, were in charge of the household, and even got to eat first. However, both genders took part in storytelling, artwork and music, and traditional medicine.
Natchez Homes They had adobe houses with thatched roofs
Natchez Clothing: men: women: Clothing: Natchez men wore breechcloths and leather leggings. Natchez women wore wraparound skirts made of deerskin or woven fiber
Natchez Hair/Body Ornaments: The Great Sun wore a fancy feathered crown, but other Natchez men usually went bare-headed. Some Natchez warriors shaved their heads except for a scalplock (one lock of hair on top of their heads.) Women usually wore their hair in one long braid
Natchez- Body Decorations: Natchez men and women both painted their faces for special occasions and also decorated their bodies with complex tribal tattoos.
Natchez Food: Farmed crops of corn, beans, pumpkins, and squash. Natchez men also hunted deer, wild turkeys, and buffalo and went fishing in the rivers. Natchez recipes included cornbread, hominy, and soups.
Natchez Weapons/Tools Natchez hunters used bows and arrows or spears. Fishermen used fishing harpoons and nets. Farmers used hoes carved from hickory wood. In war, Natchez men fired their bows or fought with tomahawks and war clubs.
Natchez Known for: They were known for their pottery, baskets, and woodcarvings.
Caddo: Chief: Location: Northwestern or Hills region of the state Chief: Caddo band was led by a chief chosen by a council of warriors. Historically, all these chiefs were male.
Caddo Language: Games: Language: Today speak their native Caddo language Games: kids tried to throw a dart through a moving hoop
Caddo Daily Life: Caddo men Caddo women Daily Life: Caddo men were hunters and sometimes went to war to protect their families. Caddo women were farmers and also did most of the child care and cooking
Homes: Caddo village also included Homes: built tall beehive-shaped grass houses Caddo village also included a temple and a sports field. Sometimes villages were surrounded by log walls for protection Clothing:
Clothing: Men: Women Men: Caddo Indian men wore breechcloths, sometimes with leather leggings to protect their legs. Women: Caddo women wore wraparound skirts and poncho tops made of woven fiber and deerskin.
Hair: Caddo men usually cut their hair in the Mohawk style or shaved their heads except for a scalplock (one long lock of hair on top of their heads.) Sometimes warriors would make this hairstyle more impressive with a colorful porcupine roach.
Hair: Women Caddo Indian women usually wore their long hair in a bun. For special occasions, Caddo women fastened their buns with beaded hair ornaments and long trailing ribbons .
Body Art/Tatoos: Travel: The Caddos also wore tribal tattoos, and women painted their faces and bodies bright colors for special occasions. Travel: dugout canoes from hollowed-out logs, but usually they preferred to travel by land
Caddo Food Farming people. Caddo women harvested crops of corn, beans, pumpkins, and sunflowers. Caddo men hunted for deer, buffalo, and small game and went fishing in the rivers. Traditional Caddo foods included cornbread, soups, and stews.
Caddo: Mined this mineral: The Caddo Indians also mined salt from underground mines, which they boiled down to use in their cooking.
Caddo: Weapons/Tools: Farmers Fisheman Warriors Caddo hunters primarily used bows and arrows. Caddo fishermen caught fish and shellfish in basket traps. Caddo warriors fired their bows or fought with lances or tomahawks.
Caddo Weapons/Tools Farmers Farmers used tools such as hoes and spades, which they made from wood, carved bone, and mussel shells. The Caddos also made axes with heavy stone heads for chopping wood.
Caddo: Known for They made pottery, basketry, woodcarvings. They held pow-wows where they danced and played drums. There are many legends and they enjoyed story telling. They held elaborate religious rituals
Choctaw Location: Language: Choctaw Located in the Southeast or in the Flatwoods or Blufflands Regions Language: They spoke Choctaw language
Choctaw Games: They played Toli a lacrosse stick like game Choctaw girls enjoyed guessing games and playing with beaded dolls. Chunkey, football, swimming, and footraces were also popular pastimes among Choctaw kids.
Choctaw Responsibilties: Men Women Choctaw men were hunters and sometimes went to war to protect their families. Chiefs were always men. Choctaw women were farmers and also did most of the child care and cooking.
Choctaw:Rituals Rituals: Both genders took part in storytelling, artwork and music, and traditional medicine
Choctaw Homes Homes: Choctaw homes were made of plaster and rivercane walls, with thatched roofs. These dwellings were about as strong and warm as log cabins The villages were surrounded with palisades
Choctaw Clothing Clothing :Choctaw men wore breechcloths. Choctaw women wore wraparound skirts made of deerskin or woven fiber
Choctaw Hair Hair: Choctaw men and women both wore their hair long, but some men cut their hair in the Mohawk style, decorating the fringe with feathers.
Choctaw Body Art Choctaws often painted their faces and bodies bright colors during battles, lacrosse games, and festivals. Some Choctaw men also wore tribal tattoos on their arms and legs.
Choctaw farmed what: Farmers: The Choctaw were farming people. Choctaw women did most of the farming, harvesting crops of corn, beans, squash, and sunflowers
Choctaw Hunted: Choctaw men did most of the hunting, shooting deer, wild turkeys, and small game. Men also caught fish in the rivers, lakes, and sea coasts.
Choctaw recipes included: . Choctaw recipes included cornbread, soups, and stews cooked on stone hearths. The Choctaws also enjoyed sassafrass tea
Choctaw tools Choctaw hunters primarily used bows and arrows. Fishermen generally used fishing spears and nets. In war, Choctaw men fired their bows or fought with tomahawks and clubs.
Choctaw famous for: The Choctaws were famous for their rivercane baskets, woodcarvings, and beaded artwork.
Houma: Location: Language: Location: lived in south central Louisiana or the Mississippi Flood fresh and salt water marshes. Language: Spoke Choctaw language.
Houma Homes Homes:They lived in Palmetto houses. Palmetto leaves were lashed onto a sapling frame. Woven in and out to create a water proof shelter. Sedentary tribe
Houma Culture and Religion culture that included dancing, crafts and a well-developed religion.
Houma got food by : farming and hunting
Houma Transportation: The Houma Indians used dugout pirogues to traverse the many bayous that cut through their territories. The pirogues were made from large, felled cypress trees prevalent in the area
Houma Town Town centers of the Houma Indians included large ball courts and a temple where the bones of revered chiefs burned in a sacred fire.
Houma Totems The crawfish is the totem and represents kinship and protection another totem is the Istrouma a tall red stick that marked the hunting grounds of the tribes. The French called this Baton Rouge
Houma Chiefs Both men and women
Houma Hair and Body Art Houma men and women both wore their hair long. The Houmas often painted their faces and bodies bright colors during battles, lacrosse games, and festivals.
Tunica-Biloxi Location: Traders: Location: located in east-central Louisiana or the Mississippi Floodplain regions Traders: They were traders of salt, arrow points, flint, horses, shell beads, pearls, and quartz.
Tunica-Biloxi traded: They were traders of salt, arrow points, flint, horses, shell beads, pearls, and quartz.
Tunica-Biloxi Leaders Totem Villages Leaders: They had war chief and a peace chief. Their totem symbol is the rattlesnake. Villages: They lived in villages of thatched houses surrounded by palisades.
Tunica-Biloxi Food: farmers-planted corn, beans, and pumkins, they used salt Recipes:cornbread, hominy, soups, and persimmon bread Men also hunted deer, wild turkey, and buffalo, and women collected fruits, nuts, and mushrooms to use in their cooking
Tunica-Biloxi Tools: Tunica hunters primarily used bows and arrows. In war, Tunica men fired their bows or fought with war clubs and knives.
Tuica-Biloxi Crafts The Tunicas were known for their pottery, baskets, and woodcarvings. They also made textiles from mulberry bark, which they used to weave clothing and blankets.
Body Art: Both men and women usually wore their hair long. The Tunicas didn't usually paint their faces, but they did decorate their bodies with tribal tattoos
Chitimacha Location: Location: South-central Louisiana Freshwater marsh regions
Chitimacha Lifestyle: Celebrated every aspects of life with ceremony and dance. With drum beating Chitimacha had no form of writing, story tellers repeated the legends and history orally, thereby preserving an integral part of Chitimacha culture.
Chitimacha Language: Language: Chitimacha Indians spoke their own Chitimacha language
Chitimacha Leaders Most Chitimacha chiefs and religious leaders were men, but there were some women who held those positions too.
Chitimacha Villages: Villages: The communities were built in the middle of rivers and swamps, as protection against enemies. There were as many as 500 people in each village.
Chitimacha Homes: Homes: They lived in a variety of different styles of permanent homes, depending on the materials close at hand, such as cane, wood and palmetto leaves.
Chitimacha Food: Grew corn for hominy and meal. They also hunted and fished, and a large part of their dietary needs was filled by the abundant variety of shellfish. They killed smaller animals with blowguns and darts made from pieces of whittled cane. They also ate bear
Chitmacha Crafts: Known for their crafts, especially basketry. These baskets were created out of wild cane reed colored with natural dye and then woven into geometric designs
Coushatta Location: Location: piney woods of Southwest Louisiana
Coushatta Food The Coushatta were traditionally agriculturalists, growing maize and other food crops, and supplementing their diet by hunting game.
Coushatta Crafts The Coushatta were traditionally agriculturalists, growing maize and other food crops, and supplementing their diet by hunting game.
Coushatta Land The land is used for Coushatta-constructed tribal housing, rice and crawfish farming and development of a new cattle raising
Coushatta Language- Koasati.
Coushatta Homes they lived in Indian style houses in large villages The houses had plaster and rivercane walls with thatched roofs. These dwellings were about as strong and warm as a log cabin.
Coushatta Town/Village . They also built a larger circular lodge for town meetings, and most villages had a lacrosse field with benches for spectators.
Coushatta Temples: They built huge temple mounds of dirt. These were like pyramids. On top they would place a temple or the house of a priest or chief lived in square-shaped villages of houses and small farm plots
Pirougue - Pirougue - a dugout made by Native Americans and the French; cypress logs were partially burned and the burned section scraped out
Calumet – a peace pipe usually made of clay or hollow cane and decorated with feathers and other significant items
How was membership into the class system achieved in most Native cultures? Membership in clans were passed through the mother’s side of the family
How did child play prepare children for adult roles? Their play imitated adult work, they learned gender roles and skills needed as adults
How do the games played by Native Americans compare to games today? Chunky was like football or soccer and by using goals and it also like baseball because one player hit the ball with a pole. They also had archery, wrestling, and racing.
How did the clothing reflect their natural environment? Women- Men- Women – wore simple skirts made of mulberry bark, buffalo wool, woven palmetto leaves, Spanish moss, or buckskin Men – breechcloths made of buckskin held with a belt made of fur, fiber, or buckskin. They also wore buckskin leggings in cold weather
Children Clothing dressed simply, summers they did not wear clothing at all They all wore moccasins for footwear from deer, bear, or bison. On special occasions, both men and women wore a cape made of woven net and covered in turkey, duck, or swan feathers
What type of work did the men do together? They cleared land, construct houses, and build boats
What were the main foods for most of Louisiana Indians? Acorns, hickory nuts, mayhaw, blackberry, sweet potato, sunflower, amaranth, corn, beans, squash, deer, bison, bear, fish, oysters, shrimp,and crab
Preserving ___and ___was the purpose of religious ceremonies. Preserving _balance ____ and ___harmony____ was the purpose of religious ceremonies.
Name the ceremonial traditions of most Native American tribes. Honoring the Sun, dancing, music, story telling, sacrificing of children
What was the role of the war chief? He was the military leader, decided when to go to war,
What was the role of the peace chief? He was in charge of normal day to day activities in the tribe. He acted as the judge in criminal cases
What were the reasons for going to war? When they felt threatened by their neighbors or to acquire captives
How did contact with Europeans change the lives of the Indians forever? They changed from a hunting and agriculture society to one that depended on trade, they were expected to serve as soldiers or slaves, the diseases that the Europeans brought destroyed many of them.
Created by: NoelleBordelon