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SCI-7 U5

All Words

QuestionAnswer
atmosphere An envelope of gases that surrounds the Earth and provides the mixture of gases necessary for all living things to survive.
troposphere The layer of Earth’s atmosphere that extends from Earth’s surface to an altitude of about 17 km, has decreasing temperature as altitude increases, and contains almost all weather.
stratosphere The layer of Earth’s atmosphere with an altitude of about 17 km to about 50 km, has increasing temperature with increasing altitude, and contains jet streams and the ozone layer.
jet streams Very high speed winds in the stratosphere caused by differences between cold polar air and warm tropical air.
ozone A special form of oxygen (O3) that acts as a shield from ultraviolet (UV) radiation.
UV radiation Invisible electromagnetic radiation from the Sun that causes sunburns and skin cancer.
mesosphere The layer of Earth’s atmosphere that extends from about 50 km to about 80 km, has decreasing temperature as altitude increases, and protects us from meteoroids.
thermosphere The layer of Earth’s atmosphere with an altitude of about 80 km to thousands of km above Earth's surface, has increasing temperature with increasing altitude, and contains two sub-layers: the Ionosphere and the Exosphere.
ionosphere The sub-layer of the Thermosphere with an altitude of about 80 km to about 550 km above Earth's surface, has increasing temperature with increasing altitude, and is where the Northern Lights and radio communication occurs.
exosphere The sub-layer of the Thermosphere with an altitude of about 550 km to about thousands of km above Earth's surface, has increasing temperature with increasing altitude, and is where the satellites orbiting Earth are located.
convection currents Movements of air caused by warmer, less dense air rising and being replaced by cooler, denser air.
wind The horizontal movement of air from one place to another in Earth’s atmosphere.
local winds Winds that blow from any direction and usually cover short distances.
land breeze The flow of air from the land to the sea during the nighttime caused by warm air above water rising and cool air moving out to sea to replace it.
sea breeze The flow of air from the sea to the land during the daytime caused by warm air above land rising and cool air moving inland.
global winds Winds that blow from a specific direction and almost always cover larger distances than local winds.
Coriolis Effect The phenomenon that occurs when global winds do not travel directly from South to North or from North to South because the Earth is rotating on its axis and the global wind currents curve.
surface zone The layer of water near the surface of the ocean and containing the warmest water in the ocean.
thermocline The layer of the ocean below the Surface Zone where the water temperature drops rapidly. This layer exists because warm, less dense water does not easily mix with the cooler, denser water below.
ocean currents Ocean water moving in streams.
surface currents Ocean currents that are located from the surface of the ocean to a depth of several hundred meters and are caused by wind patterns.
deep currents Ocean currents that are located deep in the ocean and are caused by differences in the density of water deep in the oceans.
deep zone The zone of the ocean that exists below the thermocline and contains the coldest, most dense water in the ocean.
upwelling The rising of deep cold currents when they encounter land and bring food and nutrient rich water to the surface.
Created by: susanmason