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The notion that a society's ultimate authority rests with the people is known as ________. popular sovereignty
Which term best describes the government developing policies based on what most people want? majority rule
Many of the early colonies in America were ________. established with religious tolerance
Hawaii and ________ are the last two states to have been incorporated into the United States, having done so in 1959. Alaska
The American political culture is generally defined by ________. attached to freedom and equality
Widely shared values, beliefs, and attitudes that citizens hold about the role of government and how it operates are known as ________. political culture
When you cast a vote for a political candidate, you are participating in ________. representative democracy
A law that regulates the type of content that can be distributed through the Internet or that censors the language that can be used on television or radio would most likely be offensive to someone who identifies himself or herself as ________. liberatarian
The government passes a bill increasing the size of the military during a time of war. Which important functions of the government, as envisioned by the founders, does this fulfill? Providing for the common defense and promoting the general welfare
Which of the following would be considered a political ideology? Conservatism
Based on John Locke’s social contract theory, the notion of popular consent is central to the American system of government. Which of the following best describes the way the social contract theory still pertains to politics in the U.S.? Citizens vote for those who they feel best represent their societal values.
An exchange student tells you that, in her country, an elite group holds all political power and tells the citizens what they can think, say, and do. What kind of government does her country have? totaltarian
A meaningful explanation of the American governmental system must include which of the following ideals? Recognition of the rights of all individuals
Which of the key functions of government is being fulfilled when government authorities coordinate public safety and medical transportation in the event that a person is injured in a car crash? Promoting the general welfare
Which of these best describes the development of the role of government in American society? The government has increasingly taken on greater roles and responsibilities.
Who did the Framers envision at the center of power in the American political system? The people
Which of the following best explains the change in the political culture of the United States now from the time when the government was first formed? The area and population of the nation have greatly increased, bringing to light new problems that the Framers could have never imagined.
Owning a house is an example of _________. aMERICAN dREAM
Which of the following do Americans have the least confidence in today? Cngress
What do some critics suggest is missed when political ideologies are measured on a left-right continuum? Government interference in both economic and personal liberties
If you are a citizen of a country in which you can only vote if you are very wealthy, what type of political system do you live under? Oligarchy
Most governments around the world are ________, meaning power lies with the people. democracies
In the early years of the republic, what did the majority of citizens believe was the major function of the United States Government? Promoting the general welfare
What principle of American democracy is derived from John Locke’s theory of social contract? Governments have power only through popular consent.
With the Fourteenth Amendment's guarantee of equal protection as well as civil rights and other factors, how are modern Americans’ views of liberty different from the views of the Framers of the Constitution? The Framers intended to protect Americans from government, whereas today's views emphasize the government's guarantee of freedom to do or be something.
According to the notion of popular sovereignty, ________. ultimate authority in society rests with the people
The countries with the highest levels of political rights and liberties enjoyed by citizens are generally ________. democracies
The Preamble to the ________ begins with the phrase “We the People.” The Consiitutiion
One of the essential factors in the stability of America’s political culture is the ________. guarantee that all citizens are the same in the eyes of the law
According to popular sovereignty, political authority rests with ________. the people
Citizens have the power in a(n) ________. DEMOCRACY
Which characteristic is a feature of American constitutional democracy? The protection of individual rights
Why did the Framers use the term “republic” when describing the system of government in the newly-minted United States? They thought the term democracy conjured up fears of the people and mob rule.
Which of the following is an example of indirect democracy? House of Representatives
Although the majority-rule principle is the heart of democracy, this principle also presents potential problems for citizens. Which of the following problems was of particular concern to the founders? Majority rule has the potential to lead to unjust policies that violate minority and individual rights.
Which of these factors contributes most to citizens feeling far removed from the national government and their elected representatives? Population growth that has forced elected representatives to represent increasingly larger communities.
In a representative democracy, it is important to have ________ to ensure popular sovereignty. elections so citizens can replace those whose views no longer reflect the views of the majority
The term democracy derives from the Greek words demos (“________”) and kratia (“power” or “authority.”) the people
The philosophy that society should be governed by certain ethical principles that are part of nature and, as such, can be understood by reason is ________. natural law
Which of these is an example of a president providing for the common defense? The 2003 invasion of Iraq after the September 11, 2001 attacks
Even though the words in the U.S. Constitution have not changed, their meanings have, thus making it a(n) _____ constitution. living
The ability to attend a school without discrimination is an example of _____, which is a key characteristic of America’s democracy. personal liberty
Since the 1970s, growing political activity by ________ has contributed to the growth of the Religious Right. evangelical Protestants
The notion of ________ was central to the Declaration of Independence. popular consent
The Framers of the U.S. Constitution saw the need to limit the government’s ability to ________. interfere with unalienable rights
Which term describes the set of values that are deeply held by most Americans and that motivate Americans to demand freedom and responsive government? Political culture
As of 2010, 40 percent of Americans under age 25 are members of a minority group. What predictions can be made based on this evidence? The influence of minorities on American politics and culture will increase.
Why did the Framers reject the idea of a direct democracy? America was too vast for such a system to work effectively.
Democracies can be thought of as direct or indirect. Which of the following settings would be the most conducive to a direct democracy? A relatively small group of people with clear borders and common interests
Which of the following is emphasized in American democracy compared to other democratic countries? Individualism
Since 1975, Americans’ confidence in the Congress, the presidency, business, and industry has ________. declined
Popular consent, where citizens within a democracy are willing to be governed, is based on the theory of ________. social contract
________ is the study of who gets what, when, and how—or how policy decisions are made. Politics
An implied system of government that represents the people’s interests is known as ________. a republic
Which of the following factors united citizens at the time of the founding of the United States? A single language and a shared Protestant heritage
Government is primarily about institutions, whereas politics is primarily about ________. process
North Korea, which is ruled by the dictator Kim Jong-Un, has a(n) ________ style government. totalitarian
Individuals who believe the government should correct economic injustice are generally of a_____ ideology. liberal
The democratic idea that every citizen should have political equality in the electoral process can best be summed up in the expression ________. one person, one vote
The function of government that creates a system of laws is ________. establishing justice
According to the Declaration of Independence, from what source does our national government derive its powers? the people
Under ________, Congress had the authority to settle disputes between the states. the Articles of Confederation
The Framers created and placed the election of the president with the ________. Electoral College
The supremacy clause can be found in ________ of the U.S. Constitution. Article VI
Compared to the Federalists, Anti-Federalists were ________. anti-British
Amending the Constitution requires ________. a two-thirds majority in the proposal stage and a three-quarters majority in the ratification stage
The formal process by which the U.S. Constitution may be amended is detailed in ________. Article V of the U.S. Constitution
The Second Continental Congress was convened in 1776 because ________. King George III refused to yield and tensions continued to grow
The Framers placed sole authority to ________to investigate if the chief executive needs to be removed from office. the House of Representatives
Which of the following is an example of checks and balances? The president can veto a bill that has been passed by Congress.
In the late eighteenth century, most societies in the world were ruled by ________. kings with divine right
The preamble to the Constitution begins with the phrase “We the people.” Why is this phrase significant? It signifies that the power comes directly from the people.
The fact that a legal marriage performed in Nevada is also legally valid in Florida is an example of ________, in which one state must recognize the legal proceedings of other states. the full faith and credit clause
When was the Constitution approved? September 17, 1878
Article I, section 8 of the Constitution, known as the elastic clause, gives Congress the authority to ________. make whatever laws are necessary to carry out its duties
When the ________ approved the Articles of Confederation as the country’s first system of government, it did not create a(n) ________ to administer national laws. Continental Congress; executive branch
The Twenty-Sixth Amendment, ratified in 1971, guaranteed voting rights to all ________. citizens 18 years of age or older
The Constitution was amended almost immediately after it was adopted because many citizens feared they did not have enough protections. The first 10 amendments are referred to as the ________. Bill of Rights
The document that legally establishes government authority is a(n) ________. constitution
What article of the Constitution establishes a bicameral Congress? Article I
What argument is regularly used to support new interpretations of the Constitution? The Constitution must be applied in a fashion that adapts to the challenges of today.
Which of the following best explains why anti-Federalists pushed for the inclusion of a Bill of Rights in the Constitution before ratification? They felt that an explicit guarantee of basic rights was essential to prevent the new government from abusing its power.
The Three-Fifths Compromise involved slavery and apportioning representation in Congress, especially for the less populated states. Which of the following is the best explanation of the Southern position in the debate? Slaves could not vote but the South wanted them included in the population count.
What was the intention of The Federalist Papers? To illustrate the Framers’ intentions regarding the new Constitution
While there has been much debate over the Framers’ motives in producing a Constitution, most historians agree that ________. the Framers were concerned with establishing order and stability
A valid method of proposing formal constitutional amendments that has never been used is ________. a two-thirds vote by state legislatures requesting Congress to call a national convention
The introduction of amendments to the U.S. Constitution is a ________ process, whereas the ratification of amendments is a ________ process. national-level; state-level
Which of the following is one result of enacting the Townshend Acts? Colonists boycotted imported British products, mainly tea.
The proceedings of the Constitutional Convention were kept secret ________. due to the high stakes of revising the Articles of the Confederation
Which proposal at the Constitutional Convention called for three branches of government: the executive, the judicial, and the legislative? Virginia Plan
A committee was appointed at the Constitutional Convention to work out the differences between the proposals of large and small states. The result was the ________. Great Compromise
All colonial assemblies agreed to send delegates to the First Continental Congress in Philadelphia, with the exception of ________. Georgia
The Great Compromise ________. established that national power would be supreme over state power
The ________ supported the ratification of the Constitution. Federalists
________ of the state legislatures are needed to approve the ratification of a proposed amendment. Three-quarters
Article I of the Constitution establishes ________. the legislative branch
The proposal for a one-house legislature with one representative chosen by state legislators was a recommendation in the ________. New Jersey Plan
The Framers of the Constitution ultimately agreed that the president should be elected by ________. the Electoral College
The Bill of Rights, ratified in 1791, was designed to place limits on the powers of the ________. new national government
According to Article V, ________. there are two ways to propose an amendment to the Constitution
Under the Articles of Confederation, the judicial branch was ________. nonexistent
With regard to factions, the Framers believed that they ________. are the most severe threat to individual liberties
Which of the following is true about the Great Compromise? It was a compromise between the Virginia and New Jersey Plans and established equal representation for each state in the Senate.
In its first draft, the Declaration of Independence asserts that, “all men are created equal and independent, that from that equal creation they derive rights inherent and inalienable.” In the final draft, this was changed to: ________. “they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights”
Which of the following is a potential example of the amendment process in Article V of the Constitution? A proposed amendment to balance federal budgets is accepted by two-thirds vote in both houses of Congress and then by legislatures in three-fourths of the states.
The primary weakness of the Articles of Confederation was ________. its failure to institute a strong central government
Under the Articles of Confederation, political power and authority ultimately rested with the ________. individual state governments
How did the Federalists address fears about an all-powerful, centralized government to sway opinion toward ratifying the Constitution? They promised to create a bill of rights.
Which provision concerning slavery appeared in the Constitution? The Three-Fifths Compromise
One of the ways to change the Constitution is through “informal amendments” through judicial interpretation. Since such interpretation does not change the wording of the Constitution itself, a possible long-term result is that ________. the interpretations may change from era to era
Which of the following powers did Congress have under the Articles of Confederation? To maintain an army and navy
Which of the following represents the appropriate actions of each branch of the government in regard to laws? Legislative branch passes laws, executive branch enforces laws, and judicial branch interprets laws
In economic theory, ________ is(are) designed to increase a nation’s wealth by the development of commercial industry and a favorable balance of trade. mercantilism
When was the Bill of Rights added to the Constitution? After the ratification of the Constitution, to fulfill a promise to anti-Federalists
Delegates from the less populated states wanted to be sure ________. they were equally represented
The Stamp Act of 1765 ________. mandated all paper goods in the colonies obtain a tax stamp
The ________ proclaims: “that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.” Declaration of Independence
The Constitution was ratified by ________. each state
Which of the following is one of the ways the colonists began to weaken their ties with Great Britain? They became largely self-governing.
The full faith and credit clause mandates that the states honor laws and ________ decrees of other states. judicial
Which of the following was achieved by the Great Compromise? An agreement that states would have just one representative each in the Senate, but representation in the House of Representatives would depend on population
Article III of the Constitution establishes________. the Supreme Court
Which of the following best describes the view of the Constitution as a living document? One should be willing to adapt the Constitution to changing societal needs.
Why did the Framers create the Electoral College? Because they didn’t trust the masses to elect the president directly
Why must the president give a State of the Union speech to Congress every year? Article II of the Constitution instructs the president to report directly to Congress.
Which of the following features of the Constitution best illustrates the concept of mixed or balanced government? Separation of powers
How does the Electoral College work? Each state determines how it will select its electors; electors then elect the president.
The Tenth Amendment reserves the powers that are not specifically delegated to the national government to ________. state governments
A goal of President Ronald Reagan’s New Federalism was to ________. return power to the states
Reserved powers, stated in the ________, are the basis for state criminal laws. Tenth Amendment
The ________ prevents Congress from creating federal programs that the states then have to fund from their own budgets. Unfunded Mandates Reform Act
Under the Constitution, which of the following powers is reserved to the federal government? Making treaties with foreign nations
The necessary and proper clause is also known as the ________. elastic clause
The ________ settles power disputes between the states and federal government. Supreme Court
The formation of state boundaries is part of ________. an interstate compact
________ was at issue when the state of Maryland tried to collect taxes from a federal bank because it was not chartered by the state of Maryland. The supremacy clause
If you look at your paycheck, you will probably notice you were taxed by both your state and federal government. This is a reflection of the fact that these two levels of government ________. have concurrent power on taxes
Before the 1960’s, the federal government ________. designed federally funded programs in cooperation with the states
Supreme Court Chief Justice Marshall’s 1819 ruling in favor of the federal government in the McCulloch v. Maryland case primarily relied on his interpretation of which constitutional provision? The necessary and proper clause
The Framers adopted a federal system of government because they ________. wanted to solve problems created by the Articles of the Confederation
________are the most abundant U.S. governments. Special districts
An example of a developmental policy is ________. the building of bridges
Under President Lyndon B. Johnson’s Great Society, the government took the unprecedented step of funding community groups directly. Which of the following choices best explains this unprecedented step? It placed federal funds directly into the hands of citizen action groups and circumvented state and local government of opposing parties.
While categorical grants provide states and local governments with federal funding for a specific purpose, block grants give state and local officials the ability to determine for themselves how to best spend federal grant money. One area block grants are health care
The pattern of federalism in which the federal government and the states separately exercise their delegated and reserved powers is referred to as ________. dual federalism
The Framers feared a unitary system of government or centralized power which is why they made ________. state and federal governments accountable to the people
The federal government relied on the commerce clause as the primary constitutional mechanism for implementing the wide reaching social reforms of the New Deal in the 1930s, which resulted in ________. an expansion of the federal government’s power
Which of the following statements would best describe how the Rehnquist Court viewed federalism cases? The Rehnquist Court ruled in favor of more states’ rights and less federal government intervention.
________ are serviced by special districts. School districts
A convicted felon has been captured in the state of Colorado, he is wanted for a crime in the state of Texas; ________ requires that Colorado sends the felon back to Texas. the extradition clause
If you were living under a unitary system of government, ________. all power would be concentrated at the national level
Which of the following would be an example of an interstate compact? A valid driver’s license must be recognized in all states.
Under a system of ________ federalism, state governments and the national government are equally authoritative; neither is regarded as superior to the other. dual
The Supreme Court ruling in McCulloch v. Maryland is significant because it ________. upheld the power of the national government over the states
Congress could collect income tax under ________. the Sixteenth Amendment
The powers of the federal government that are explicitly mentioned in the Constitution are called ________. enumerated powers
In the late 1980s, the ________ began to limit the areas Congress could regulate. Rehnquist Court
Federalism in the United States ________. has been ongoing and changing for more than 200 years
A form of federalism that takes a pragmatic approach where the relations between federal and state governments are cooperative and coercive is called ________. competitive federalism
One reason the national government provides grants is to ________. financially equalize rich and poor localities financially equalize rich and poor localities
If there is a conflict between state and federal laws, federal law is supreme as stated in ________. Article VI of the U.S. Constitution
The United States Constitution specifically lists ________. what the national government can do
Citizens of one state are guaranteed the same rights as citizens of others states under Article IV of the U.S. Constitution, also known as the ________ clause. privileges and immunities
A form of governmental structure in which the national government is weak and most or all power is in the hands of its components (e.g., states) is known as ________. a confederation
In a ________ system, all ruling authority rests in a single national government. unitary
Prior to the ratification of the new Constitution, the United States was governed under _______. the Articles of Confederation
As of 2008, governmental authority in the United States is distributed according to a ________ system. progressive federal
According to political scientist, Paul E. Peterson, developmental policies are best left to the ________ as they are closer to issues. the states
The Marshall Court found that Congress could charter a bank based on ________. the elastic clause
In the 1880’s, there was a need for ________ to regulate businesses as the nation was becoming more technologically advanced. economic intervention by the national government
Which of the following is an example of cooperative federalism? States working with the federal government to stabilize the economy
A part of progressive federalism is ________. allowing states, such as California, to set state regulations on federal policies
In the 1833 case of Barron v. Baltimore, the Supreme Court ruled the ________ clause in the Bill of Rights did not apply to the states. due process
Under Article I, the federal government ________. cannot pass ex post facto laws
Congress’s so-called “implied powers” are directly derived from ________. enumerated powers
Part of the post-Civil War Reconstruction era was ________. a shift in government from nullification and dual federalism to centrality and cooperative federalism
The Framers designed a system, where the national and state governments share power and derive authority from the ________. people
Today’s American political system can be best described as a ________system. federal
What was one outcome of the ratification of the Seventeenth Amendment? State senators are directly elected by voters.
What was one of the major arguments against progressive federalism? Meeting state regulations would be more costly than trying to meet one national standard.
In his “Court-packing plan”, President Roosevelt proposed to ________. expand the number of Supreme Court justices to thirteen
The U. S. Constitution reserves specific powers for the federal government and assigns separate powers to the states. Which of the following best defines the federalism designed by the U. S. Constitution? Dual federalism
The enactment of the No Child Left Behind Act is an example of ________, as states normally could control education legislation under the Tenth Amendment. preemption
Federalism decentralizes power and brings government closer to the people ________. under the Tenth Amendment
In its U.S. v. Lopez decision, the Supreme Court ruled in favor of ________. the state law governing gun control
The full faith and credit clause ________. requires states to honor each other’s official acts
No Child Left Behind is a federal law that _____ __state and local government powers to regulate education policy. preempts
Which of the following is reserved to the states by the U.S. Constitution? Set an election schedule
Which of the following choices best describes the role of the Marshall Court in American government? The Marshall Court helped to define the constitutional relationship between state and national power, and also created an ongoing role for the Supreme Court in federalism.
By law, Congress cannot pass federal programs without debating on how to pay for them under ________, the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act
________ policies are those the federal government uses to collect funds from one group of citizens to finance programs for another group of citizens. Redistributive
An example of cooperative federalism is a ________. public policy program that was jointly funded, administered, and determined by national, state and local governments
President Johnson created the Great Society Program to fight the “War on Poverty” by providing funding through ________ to states, local governments, and private citizens. categorical grants
Unlike the United States, Britain’s political system can most accurately be described as a ________ system. unitary
Delegated or enumerated powers are described in the U.S. Constitution as powers ________. belonging to the national government
Which of the following is one action states are afforded according to Article IV? Extradite convicted criminals
The purpose of the Second Amendment ________. is to guarantee the right of citizens to bear arms
The Supreme Court’s opinion on libel in relation to the First Amendment is that it is ________. not protected
“Pleading the Fifth Amendment” means that ________. a defendant is not required to say anything that will self-incriminate him or her
Refusing to salute the flag or sing the national anthem at a baseball game as a form of political protest is an example of what type of speech? Symbolic
An editor of the weekly campus paper needs to decide whether or not to print an article that's highly critical of the state senator. Can he or she print the article without legal repercussion? Yes, freedom of the press is protected by the First Amendment.
The American Civil Liberties Union group on your campus has organized a protest against capital punishment. What civil liberties issue are they basing their protest on? The Eighth Amendment prohibition against cruel and unusual punishment
What phrase best describes the Supreme Court’s stance on the use of obscenity when expressing an idea? It is not protected as freedom of speech.
Wiki Leaks released classified documents about the Afghanistan War. The U.S. government tried to stop this information from being published. If the government had been successful, what would this censorship be called? Prior restraint
The Supreme Court has been responsible for not only the interpretations, but also the expansions of the ________. due process clause
The Supreme Court based its decisions allowing access to birth control and abortions on ________. the right to privacy
Which amendment prevents the national government from taking away personal property without providing just compensation? The Fifth Amendment
Which of the following best describes the trend in recent Supreme Court decisions regarding the separation of church and state? The Supreme Court is willing to ease the strict division between church and state by not using the Lemon test to examine establishment cases, as long as school prayer is not involved. What is today’s Supreme Court’s position on prior restraint?
What is today’s Supreme Court’s position on prior restraint? It is reluctant to tolerate prior restraint.
Which incident during the war on terror caused the most public outrage among the American people and calls for investigations into government action? Photos of cruel treatment of prisoners by U.S. military personnel while held in Abu Ghraib, Iraq
When suspects were apprehended leaving a burglary and were asked if they were involved, they said they "plead the fifth." What Fifth Amendment right are they invoking? They are avoiding self-incrimination.
The ability of a group of people being allowed to protest legally if they get a permit to do so is an example of________. a First Amendment right
The First Amendment to the Constitution protects what basic civil liberty? Freedom of expression
The writ of habeas corpus ________. asserts that any person cannot be confined illegally Most of our civil liberties flow from ________, or the supreme law of the United States.
Most of our civil liberties flow from ________, or the supreme law of the United States. the U.S. Constitution
How is the U.S. government prohibited from interfering with a citizen’s right to practice his or her religion? Free exercise clause
Civil liberties provide all citizens with fundamental liberties such as freedom of speech and religion. Where would you find these in the U.S. Constitution? The Bill of Rights
In the development of the Supreme Court’s position on restrictions of freedom of speech in Schenck v. U. S., what was the key condition that allowed the exception? The communication presented a standard of clear and present danger.
According to the Fourteenth Amendment, we are all entitled to certain civil liberties and to equal protection of the laws. This means that ________. as a citizen, you have the right not to be subjected to discrimination because of your status
To declare that something is a natural right implies that the government ________. does not bestow it upon the people; they are born with it
Protections granted in the Bill of Rights overwhelmingly fell into which category? Rights of those accused of crimes
In order to obtain a conviction in a case of libel against a public official, “actual malice,” or ________, must be established. proof of knowing disregard for the truth
The Second Amendment was added to the Constitution to ________. ensure that Congress could not pass laws to disarm the state militias
The case of Miller v. California (1973) addressed the issue of obscenity. Which of the conditions or factors below would make obscenity allowable under its requirements? The work is of serious literary, artistic, political or scientific value.
Civil liberties address ________ while civil rights address ________. natural rights; government-protected rights
In the case of New York Times Co. v. Sullivan (1964), the court defined libel and slander. In its decision, the Supreme Court stated that a charge of libel against a public official could stand only if _______. it was done with malicious intent
Which of the following best describes the Supreme Court’s basic position on what the First Amendment means for the relationship between government and religion? Government must be neutral toward religion and refrain from either endorsing or disfavoring any particular religion.
Which of the following factors could most undermine the protections guaranteed in Gideon v. Wainwright (1963), which led to greater protections for those accused of crimes? The quality of court-appointed lawyers varies greatly.
What was the significance of Furman v. Georgia? The Court found the death penalty violated the Eighth and Fourteenth Amendments as it was deemed cruel and unusual punishment.
In 2008 the Roberts Court tried to balance national security and civil liberties by ruling that ________. detainees are covered by the Geneva Convention
Execution of the mentally retarded or offenders younger than the age of eighteen is prohibited because doing so would violate the ________. ban on cruel and unusual punishment
In Roe v. Wade, the Supreme Court found that ________. a woman has the right to terminate her pregnancy under certain conditions
Which Constitutional amendment states that Congress may not infringe on the right to bear arms? The Second Amendment
The first ten amendments to the Constitution were ratified in 1791. Together, what are they called? The Bill of Rights
Which of the following protections is covered by the Fifth Amendment? Protection against double jeopardy
The First Amendment limits the action of ________. Congress
The Brady Bill of 1993 requires a five-day waiting period before the purchase of a handgun so law enforcement officials can do a background check on the buyer. This law limits citizens’ Second Amendment rights to ________. keep and bear arms
In the case ________, the Supreme Court first articulated the incorporation doctrine. Gitlow v. New York (1925)
The Supreme Court created the Lemon test to hear cases involving _______. religious establishments
According to the Supreme Court, mandatory drug testing of students engaged in extracurricular activities ________. does not violate the Constitution
The Bush administration argued that the Military Commissions Act of 2006 allowed the indefinite incarceration of enemy combatants. However, in 2008 the Supreme Court granted such people the right to habeas corpus. This meant that imprisoned enemy combatan a hearing in federal courts on whether they were being held legally
Until a 2004 Supreme Court decision, the USA PATRIOT Act ________. denied detainees due process rights
Which of the following activities is permissible in the eyes of the Supreme Court? Discussion of the Ten Commandments as part of a discussion of world history
Before entering a home to investigate the cause of a recent fire, the fire department must ________. obtain a warrant
A constitutional doctrine that prevents the government from prohibiting speech or publication before the fact is known as ________. prior restraint
Which of the following is cited as one argument against the death penalty in the 1972 Supreme Court case Furman v. Georgia? It was deemed cruel and unusual punishment, thereby violating the Eighth and Fourteenth Amendments.
The free exercise clause ________. prohibits Congress from impeding religious beliefs
Laws that make an act punishable as a crime even if the act was legal at the time it was committed are known as ________. ex post facto laws
Despite the lasting popularity of the Second Amendment, the United States has passed gun control legislation such as the National Firearms Act, which outlawed certain types of assault weapons in response to organized crime. What does this tell us? The right to bear arms remains important to Americans, though they are willing to compromise some freedom for public safety.
The two clauses in the Constitution that concern religion are the ________. establishment clause and the free exercise clause
Evidence that was illegally seized cannot be used in a trial based on the Supreme Court’s ________ adopted in 1914. exclusionary rule
Which of the following expanded the government’s right to search private property without notifying the owner? The USA PATRIOT Act
An ex post facto law is one that ________. makes an act illegal even if the act was legal when it was committed
Protection against self-incrimination is a provision of the ________. Fifth Amendment
The Ninth Amendment guarantees rights that are fundamental but not specifically enumerated in the Bill of Rights. This amendment was the basis of the landmark abortion decision of Roe v. Wade, where the Court cited ________. no prior decision as a basis for Roe v. Wade
Why did many Anti-Federalists insist on including a “bill of rights” in the new Constitution? They did not share the same confidence they had in the states for the federal government to protect civil liberties.
Which Constitutional amendment or clause was interpreted to make the Fifth Amendment applicable to the states? The due process clause
Which of the following is true about the Eighth Amendment? The Supreme Court has never declared capital punishment to be “cruel and unusual.”
“Hate speech” is covered by the First Amendment, but can be considered ________. if it becomes an action with the intent of racial intimidation
In the case of ________, the Supreme Court briefly put an end to capital punishment when it ruled that capital punishment was applied in an arbitrary manner that constituted cruel and unusual punishment. Furman v. Georgia
The protection against government confiscation of personal property without just compensation is outlined in the _______. Fifth Amendment
In 1991, the Supreme Court upheld a state ban on nude erotic dancing in Indiana, on the basis that it qualified as ________ according to the state’s standards, and thus was not protected by the First Amendment. obscenity
When government attempts to deprive a citizen of certain rights, the citizen must be allowed “due process,” which means that ________. established procedures and laws must be followed
What are civil liberties as defined in your text? Freedoms found primarily in the Bill of Rights that protect people from government interference
The USA PATRIOT Act violates the ________. First Amendment’s free speech guarantee
Prior to the Seventeenth Amendment, the Constitution provided that senators be selected by their state’s legislature. Today, except in some special cases, senators are selected by ________. popular vote in each state
Individual senators have the power to engage in unlimited debate and stall proceedings to prevent action on given legislation. What is this action called? Filibustering
Although the vice president is usually considered a member of the executive branch of government, the Constitution also gives him or her an important role in the legislative branch. What legislative branch position does the vice president hold? President of the Senate
The division of Congress into two chambers, the House of Representatives and the Senate, makes it a(n) ________ legislature. bicameral
In the 112th Congress, the nearly 20 House committees had roughly 90 subcommittees that collectively acted as ________. the eyes and ears of the House
The most powerful leader on Capitol Hill is the ________. Speaker of the House
In both the House and the Senate, the party leader’s assistant who ensures attendance of party members at important roll calls is the ________. party whip
Congressional leadership positions can be important outside the legislative branch. In the event of a presidential vacancy, the vice president is first in the line of succession. Who is next in line? The Speaker of the House
In the trustee model of representation, legislators vote based on their sense of judgment and the national interest, rather than just on the interests of the district they represent. If you were working for a member of Congress, which of these legislative Visiting a disaster area outside his or her state to learn about the impact on the local population
One of your roommates is seeking an internship on Capitol Hill and wants to work for the most powerful member of the United States Senate. To which senate officer would you recommend she submit her application? The majority leader
To become a member of Congress, one must ________. win the general election
If you are elected to a full term in the United States House of Representatives, how long can you serve before the next election for your seat? Two years
If the president nominates you to serve as an ambassador, which body will hold hearings on whether or not to confirm your nomination? The Senate
In the delegate model of representation, legislators view public opinion in their district as authoritative direction for how they should vote. If you were working for a member of Congress, which of these legislative activities would you recommend he or s Hire pollsters to determine constituency opinion on key issues
According to the former conventions of the seniority system in Congress, ________. members with the most years of service were historically first in line for committee chairmanships
Which of the following developments in congressional politics would make an incumbent more vulnerable to defeat by a challenger? An incumbent being forced to spend more time in Washington than in his or her home district
Which of the following is the best analysis of the congressional redistricting process? Congressional redistricting is largely a political process.
Seniority is no longer the major factor used for determining the selection of a ________ in the House. committee chair
What is the youngest age at which you could serve in the House of Representatives? Twenty-five
Once a bill passes both houses of Congress, it must go to a(n) ________ in order to resolve any differences between the House and Senate versions of the bill. conference committee
The representation of minorities and women in Congress ________. is disproportionately low
In 2010, approximately ________ percent of incumbents were reelected in the Senate, the highest rate since 2004. 90
________ members present and voting in the Senate are needed for cloture on a debate in order to halt a filibuster. Sixty
Committing funds to set a new law in motion is part of the ________ process. appropriations
From 1787 to 1987, the Supreme Court struck down only ________laws. 127 127
Congressional monitoring of the executive branch by holding committee hearings to determine if the laws are being faithfully executed is called ________. oversight
Ending the threat of a filibuster and limiting debate to 20 hours for controversial issues affecting the budget is done through ________. reconciliation
The U.S. Constitution requires that all revenue-raising bills ________. originate in the House of Representatives
All presidential treaties must be approved ________. by the Senate
The House leader who both formulates the majority party’s legislative program in consultation with other leaders and steers the program through the House is the ________. majority leader
________ provide a forum for those on both sides of an issue to voice their opinions about a bill while it is still in its formative stages. Subcommittee hearings
Amendments cannot be added to bills under consideration by the House if the bill has been assigned a(n) ________rule. closed
A senator elected in 2010 would be up for reelection in what year? 2016
The politico model of representation holds that representatives can alternately fulfill the role of trustee or delegate depending on the issue. Which of the following is an example of this model? A senator who follows his or her own judgment on a matter that does not attract public interest, but mirrors his or her constituents’ views on an issue of major public concern
If a representative listens to what his constituents want and then uses his best judgment to decide how to vote, he is acting as a ________. trustee
Which of the following defines casework? Helping constituents navigate government issues
Which of the following two groups continue to be underrepresented in Congress despite recent gains over the past decade? Women and racial minorities
What is one function of a special-interest caucus? Facilitate communication between legislators who share common interests
Within the past decade, the degree of party unity, which measures the percentage of Democratic and Republican senators and representatives voting with their party, has ________. increased in comparison to previous decades
Who normally wins congressional elections? Incumbents
The ________ has the power of impeachment. House of Representatives
Who is responsible for the communication of party lines to members of Congress, summarizing bills for his or her party, and organizing key votes within each party? The whips
The Speaker of the House is second in line of presidential succession, after the________. vice president
Any two-house legislature, such as the one created by the Framers, is called ________. bicameral
There are ________ members of Congress. 535
________ is considered the people’s branch of government. Congress
The ________ has the job of presiding over the Senate and breaking ties when necessary. vice president
At the Constitutional Convention, the Great Compromise ________. established the bicameral legislature
A filibuster can be used only in ________. the Senate
The House controls debate through the ________. Rules Committee
The constitutional provision that gives Congress broad powers to legislate beyond its enumerated powers is called the ________. necessary and proper clause
Passing an appropriations bill authorizing expenditures for federal highway construction is one example of Congress’s ________. programmatic requests
What is it called when a member of Congress’s vote is consistent with his or her party? Voting along party lines
The members of the Senate and the House come to Washington as representatives of _______. states and districts
The drawing of a legislative district’s boundaries to benefit a party, group, or incumbent is referred to as ________. gerrymandering
What predictor of voting behavior is more common in the House than it is in the Senate? Party affiliation
The belief that voters should choose legislators who listen to the opinions of constituents and then can be trusted to use his or her own best judgment to make final decisions represents the ________ model of representation. trustee
How many U.S. congressional House districts are there? 435
When the vice president is not present, the Senate is formally led by the ________. president pro tempore
A redistricting plan drawn for the purpose of creating a new district with a partisan majority would do which of the following? Draw new boundaries around a geographic territory containing a majority of voters likely to vote along partisan lines
What is the procedure by which a senator asks to be informed before a particular bill or nomination is brought to the floor? A hold
The term “pork” refers to ________. spending appropriations that allows legislators to bring funding to their district in the form of public works projects or funding for military bases
A process by which presidents generally allow senators from the state in which a judicial vacancy occurs to block a nomination simply by registering their objection is called ________. senatorial courtesy
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