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Chapter 12&13 Review

Evolution and Adaptation

1. How old is the Earth? 4.5 billion yrs old.
2. Define the Primordial Soup Model. The oceans were thought to be filled with many different organic molecules.
3. How did Cyanobacteria change the atmosphere? What process did they perform? What organelle allowed them to perform this process? It released oxygen into the atmosphere forming the ozone layer. Chloroplast perform photosynthesis which is responsible for releasing oxygen into the atmosphere.
4. What is endosymbiosis? The hypothesis that states mitochondria are the descendants of symbiotic, aerobic eubacteria and chloroplast are the descendants of symbiotic, photosynthetic eubacteria.
5. What was the first eukaryotic kingdom to evolve? Kingdom Protista
6. List the kingdoms that evolved from the protists. Kingdom Plantae, Kingdom Anamalia and Kingdom Fungi
7. What is the difference between unicellular and multicellular? Uni = one Multi = more than one
8. Why is the Earth’s ozone so important for us to try and save (what does it protect us from)? The ozone block harmful UV rays and makes the Earth a safe place for life on land.
9. Which organisms were first to live on land? Plants and fungi
10. Which animals were first to live on land? Arthropods (insects)
11. What type of organism were the first vertebrate animals. (You will have to look in the book for this one.) Jawless fish
12. What island did Darwin sail to? The Galapagos
13. What reason did Darwin give for some of the plants & animals on the island resembling those in South America? They must have migrated there and adapted to the new environment, he called it descent with modification.
14. Give an example of a population? The number of people living in Brenham
15. Could natural selection occur without genetic variation? NO, there has to be a variety of genes in a population for natural selection to take place.
16. Why is genetic variation important to natural selection? (This is a thought provoking question, so THINK!!!) Without genetic variation all species would be the same. This would eliminate the selection from changes in nature for survival to continue.
What is adaptation? A feature or trait that has become common in a population because the feature provides a selective advantage.
18. Describe the process of Natural Selection and how it relates to evolution. Changes in nature force the selection of different traits or features to have an advantage over organisms without that trait. The advantage allows the species to be more likely to survive and reproduce.
19. If you are better suited for your environment than others, what advantage does that give you? This gives an individual a better chance of survival which allows them to reproduce at a higher rate.
20. What type of evolution occurs at a slow constant rate? Gradualism
21. What is punctuated equilibrium? Evolution that occurs at an irregular rate through geologic time.
22. What evidence is found in the fossil record that proves evolution takes place? Scientists have a large sample of fossils that range from many different species. This allows scientists to study many living organisms and how they evolved over many years.
23. What is a homologous structure? Two different species that have the same structure, but use them for a different purpose. Ex. Human arms, alligator arms-legs
24. What is a vestigial structure? Body structures that have no use or have a less important function than they do in others.
25. What is it called when two species need the same resource? competition
26. What leads to the formation of a new species? Divergence Geographic isolation Physical differences No attraction infertility
27. Consider the wings of a bird and a butterfly. Both enable flight; the fossil record indicates that they evolved independently through the process called? Convergent Evolution – Two different species that live in the same environment may act the same although unrelated.
28. What are the 3 parts of a nucleotide (DNA)? Sugar, phosphate, nitrogen base
29. What 3 things are needed for aerobic respiration to take place? Oxygen, Organic molecules, Enzymes
30. Use a punnett square and cross a homozygous tall, wrinkled plant with a homozygous short wrinkled plant. What are the genotype ratios of the offspring? Hint: this is a dihybrid cross T=Tall, t=short S=smooth, s=wrinkled
31. What is a hypertonic and hypotonic solution? Htpertonic is when the concentration(#) of sugar particles outside the cell is greater than inside-then the cell will lose water and shrink. When the concentration of sugar is greater inside the cell than outside-water will move into the cell and swell
32. What process converts light energy into chemical energy? Photosynthesis
33. What happens during anaphase of the cell cycle? Anaphase ensures that each daughter cell will have the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell.
34. Describe what a homologous structure is and give an example. Structures that look very much alike but are used for different purposes.
35. How does comparing the amino acid sequence of a protein provide evidence that evolution has taken place? The closer the amino acid sequence is among living things the closer related they are to each other.
Created by: elizabethkolby