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7th Grade Ch 4

Cell Reproduction

mitosis the process in which the nucleus divides to form two identical nuclei
chromosome structure in the nucleus that contains hereditary material
interphase a period of growth and development that takes up most of the life of a cell; chromosomes duplicate at the end of interphase
prophase first phase of mitosis; chromatid pairs are visible an spindle fibers beginning to form
metaphase second phase of mitosis; chromatid pairs line up across the middle of the cell
anaphase third phase of mitosis; chromatids separate and are pulled to opposite ends of the cell
telophase fourth and final phase of mitosis; cytoplasm begins to separate and new nucleus forms on each side
centromere where chromatid pairs are attached to one another
cell plate appears between the two new cells in plant cells during telophase since the cytoplasm can't pinch together
asexual reproduction a new organism(s) is produced from one organism; new organism is genetically identical to the parent organism
budding asexual reproduction in which a new organism grows from the body of the parent organism
regeneration asexual reproduction in which a new body part can regrow; sometimes even a whole new organism grows from a piece of the organism
fission asexual reproduction in bacteria where they make a copy of themselves (no nucleus so bacteria can't go through mitosis)
chromatid two identical chromosomes attached to one another at the centromere
sexual reproduction when two sex cells come together, most often from two different organisms
sperm haploid cell formed in the male reproductive system
egg haploid cell formed in the female reproductive system
fertilization when a sperm meets an egg
zygote the new cell formed after fertilization
diploid cells with pairs of similar chromosomes (one set from each parent)
haploid single sets of chromosomes; has half the number of chromosomes the organism should; found in sex cells
meiosis process that produces haploid sex cells
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid; contains information for an organism's growth and function
RNA ribonucleic acid; carries the codes for making proteins from the nucleus to the ribosomes
gene a section of DNA on a chromosome; contains instructions for making specific proteins
mutation any permanent change in the DNA sequence of a gene or chromosome; outside factors such as X rays, sunlight, and some chemicals can cause mutations
Created by: MsHollinger