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Exam 3 - Misc.

Important things I just couldn't categorize for metabolism

Effects of Insulin on liver, mm, and adipose liver - store glucose. MM - use glucose. Adipose - store glucose and stop FA release. All - uptake glucose, dephosphorolate enzymes
Effects of Glucagon on liver, mm, and adipose Liver - glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, release glucose, inhibits FA synthesis Adipose - release of FA
Anomer steroisomer that only varies at the former carbonyl carbon in a cyclic structure
Cyclizaion of D-Glucose is more likely to take which cyclic form? Beta - OH on former carbonyl carbon points down
Linkages in cellulose, chitin, starch, glycogen cellulose - beta 1,4 chitin - beta 1,4 (NAG polymer) starch - alpha 1,4 (amylose straight, amylopectin branched). Glycogen - alpha 1,4 with alpha 1,6 branches every 8-12 glucoses
epithelial cell uptake of glucose 1) Na+/K+ Primary Pump - creates low Na gradient in cell, basolateral. 2) Na+/Glucose Symporter (SGLT)- uses Na gradient to bring Glucose into cell, apical 3) GLUT carrier - glucose out of cell to blood, basolateral
GLUT 1-4 1 and 3 - all cells, basal uptake of glucose. 2 - liver and pancreas, only allows glucose in at above physiological levels. 4 - mm and fat cell sequestered vesicles, move to cell surface when insulin binds, allow glucose in at slightly above normal
Hexokinase IV (Glucokinase) liver does not have hexokinase (glycolysis), but instead this enzyme which can only act on glucose, it NOT inhibited by G6P, and is best at suprphysiological [glucose]
Adenosine Kinase (AMP K) converted ADP to AMP to create more sensitive detector of low energy states
Normal blood glucose levels 65-100 mg/dL
cofactor for pyruvate kinase (gluconeogenesis) Biotin
Net ATP and NADH for glycolysis 2 ATP (made 4, used 2), 2 NADH
Net cost of gluconeogenesis -4 ATP (2 from PC, 2 from F1,6-BPase), -2 GTP (from PEP CK), -2 NADH (from G3P DH)
What transporters on the apical side of an epithelial cell are responsible for transporting the 3 monosaccharides into an intestinal cell? SGLT = Galactose and Glucose. GLUT5 = Fructose.
How does fructose enter glycolysis (in the liver)? Fructokinase converts to F1P, and then F1P aldolase converts F1P to DHAP and Glyceraldhyde 3-Phosphate (products of splitting stage)
How does galactose enter glycolysis (in the liver)? galctokinase converts to Galactose-1-Phosphate. Galactose-1-Phosphate Uridly Transferase switches a UDP from UDP-Glucose to Galactose-1-P to produce Glucose-1-P which gets converted to G6P via phosphoglucomutase
How do galactose and fructose enter glycolysis is all cells except the liver? hexokinase (Galactose → G6P) and (Fructose → F6P)
5 metabolic pathways that occur in the cytoplasm glycolysis, pentose phosphate shunt, FA synthesis, glucogen synthesis, glycogenolysis
3 metabolic pathways that occur in the mitochondrial matrix TCA cycle, B-oxidation of FA, Ketone Body Formation
2 metabolic pathways that have some steps in both in the cytoplasm and mitochondrial matrix gluconeogenesis, urea cycle
What 3 pathways can Glucose-6-phosphate enter? glycolysis, glycogen breakdown/synthesis, pentose phosphate shunt
What 2 intermediates can pyruvate be converted into and what pathways can these intermediates enter? (1) Acetyl-CoA - TCA, FA synthesis, ketone body formation, synthesis of cholesterol. (2) OAA - gluconeogenesis, TCA cycle
Thiamine (B1) and Lipoic Acid are found in what enzyme? PDH
Riboflavin(B2) and Nicain (B3) are vitamins for what molecules? FAD and NAD
Pantothenic Acid (B5) is a vitamin found in what 2 compounds? CoA and Fatty Acyl-CoA
Pyridoxine (PLP) (B6)is a vitamin found in what types of enzymes? transaminations and transferases, and Glycogen Phosphorolase
Biotin (B7) is a vitamin found in what type of enzymes? carboxylases
Folic Acid (B9) is a vitamin found in very important molecule? Tetrahydrofolate
Give the order of coenzymes that the acetyl group from pyruvate is passed to in the PDH complex. Thiamine Pyrophosphate (TTP) (via a carboxylation rxn), Dihyrdolipoamide (via an oxidation of the acetyl group), CoA (via a group transfer rxn)
During the Electron Transport Chain, H+ is pumped into the _____ to create an electrochemical gradient that is used to produce ATP inside the ____ Intermembrane Space; Mt. Matrix
Succinate DH is also known as ____ in the electron transport chain. Complex IIa
What electron carriers are found in the complex I in the electron transport chain? FMN, Fe-S clusters, Q
What electron carriers are found in complex III in the electron transport chain? Q, Cyt Ct, Cyt C
What electron carriers are found in complex IV in the electron transport chain? Cyt c, Type A Copper, Heme a, Heme a3, Type B copper (Heme a3 and Type B copper coordinate O2)
How many electrons are pumped by each of the complexes of the electron transport chain? I - 4 H+. II - 0. III - 4 H+. IV - 2 H+.
What are the different parts of complex V (ATP synthetase) Fo = 10 c (with Asp), A (with 2 half channels). F1 = 3 alpha (always bound to ATP), 3 beta (O,L,T states), Gamma (cause conformational change in beta - convex gamma = T, concave gamma = O)
How many H+ are needed by ATP synthetase to complete one revolution? How many ATP does this create? Why is the energy yield from NADH and FADH2 less than this? 10 H+, 3 ATP, ADP/ATP and Phosphate translocase move 1 H+ into the matrix and thus lose 0.5 ATP in the process
How do fast-metabolizing tissues (mm, brain) enter the electron transport chain? Complex IIb - converts glycerol-3-phosphate into DHAP via Glycerol-3P DH to produce FADH2 and thus only 1.5 ATP
How do slow-metabolizing tissues (heart, kidney, liver) enter the electron transport chain? Malate/Alpha-ketogluterate shuttle in reverse - bring malate into the matrix to produce NADH and thus 2.5 ATP
Describe the different linkages found in cellulose, chitin, starch, glycogen. Cellulose - beta 1,4 Chitin - beta 1,4 of N-acetylglucosoamine Startch - alpha 1,4 (straight = amylose, branched = amylopectin) Glycogen = straight alpha 1,4 and branches with alpha 1,6
What end of glycogen gets broken down? non-reducing end (C4 with an OH)
Give the steps of glycogen synthesis 1 - phosphoglucomutase converts G6P to G1P. 2 - UDP-Gluc. Pyrophosphorolase attachs G1P to UDP. 3 - Glycogenin adds first 8 monomers 4 -Glycogen Synthase creates a linear chain 5 -every 11 glu, Branching enzyme cleaves 4 glu a makes a branch
Give the steps of glycogen breakdown 1 -glycogen phosphorolase preforms a phosphorolysis rxn to break 1 G1P off 2 -when a branch has only 4 glucoses left, Transferase cleaves the last 3 glucoses 3 -Debranching enzyme cleaves the last alpha-1,6 linkage via hydrolysis
Give the kcal/g for Fatty acids, carbs, proteins, and ethanol. FA = 9 kcal/g. Carbs and Proteins = 4 kcal/g. Ethanol = 7 kcal/g.
How are Fatty Acids fed in to carbohydrate metabolism? 1- Lipase converts TAG to glycerol and 3 FA 2- FA enter beta-oxidation, glycerol is converted into Glycerol-3-phosphate via Glycerol kinase 3- Glyceraldehyde-3-P DH converts Glyceraldehyde-3-P to DHAP and gives resulting FADH2 to Complex IIb in ETC
Give the order of lipoprotein densities from highest to lowest density of FA. Chylomicron > HDL > LDL > IDL > VLDL
Give the substrates for the 3 types of lipases. 1-Pancreatic lipase - dietary lipids 2-Lipoprotein lipase - lipoproteins (cause uptake of FAs into cell). 3-Hormone Sensitive Lipase - TAG in adiposites
Circulation of FAs starting at intestines ending at liver. 1-Chylomicrons from intestines give of FA and their remnants are sent back to the liver. 2-FA repackaged in VLDL in liver. 3-VLDL give FA to tissues becoming ILDL and finally LDL and sent back to liver. 4-Liver releases HDL to pick up stray cholesterol
How does fatty acid oxidation link up with the electron transport chain? Acyl-CoA DH is also Complex IIc
What 2 enzymes use coenzmye B12? Methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (dealing with odd chaing FA) and Methionine Synthase
What happens when we have an odd number of carbons in Fatty acyl-CoA? when we reach 3 carbon intermediate (propionyl-CoA), Propionyl-CoA Carboxylase removes CO2 to form Methylmalonyl-CoA. Methylmalonyl-CoA mutase then converts to succinyl-CoA which can enter the TCA cycle
What happens if we have a monounsaturated Fatty acyl-CoA? Use the enzyme ⌂3,⌂2-Enoyl-CoA Isomerase to create a trans double bond - unfortunately this causes us to never make the initial FADH2 created in the first step
What happens if we have a polyunsaturated Fatty-acyl-CoA? First double bond is dealt with by ⌂3,⌂2-enoyl-CoA isomerase. The second double bond gets reduced using Dienoyl-CoA Reductase - this unfortunately causes us to use up a NADH :(
How is elongation of FA greater than 16 C different from elongation of shorter FA? Occurs is SER attached to acetyl-CoA (as opposed to malonyl CoA)
How are synthesized FAs turned into unsaturated FAs? Fatty Acyl-CoA Desaturase (mixed fxn oxidase) Uses electrons from NADPH and O2 to create a ⌂9 double bond. Humans cannot make double bonds beyone C10; this is why alpha-linolenate and lenoleate are essential fatty acids that must be ingested
Give the steps in Ketone body metabolism 1-no insulin and basal glucagon causes the release of FA to blood. FA are converted into acetyl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA is converted to Acetoacetate (parent Ketone Body). Acetoacetate is converted into Acetone and hydroxybutyrate ketone bodies the lower pH.
What happens in the first stages of ethanol consumption ELEVATED NADH!!! - cause ↓glycolysis, ↓TCA, ↓gluconeogenesis, ↓FA oxidation, ↓VLDL secreation, ↑lactate, ↑FA synthesis, ↑FA delivery (low insulin!)
What happens in the second stages of ethanol consumption? ACTIVATION OF MICROSOME OXIDIZING SYSTEM!! - ↓NADPH, ↓TCA, ↑oxidative damage, ↑acetyl-CoA, ↑ketone bodies
Describe how Malate, Alpha-Ketogluterate, Glutamate, and Aspartate movement into and out off the matrix is coordinated. Malate enters matrix and α-ketoglut leaves via Malate/α-ketoglu transporter. Malate is converted to OAA. Glutamate enters the cell via Glut/Asp transporter. Glut gives NH4+ to OAA (via AST) to produce Asp and α-ketoglut. Asp leaves matrix via Glut/Asp
What urea cycle intermediate is the connection between the urea cycle and the TCA cycle? Argininosuccinate
Created by: c.phill