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chapter 19: galaxies, stars, and universe

spectrum the band of color produced when white light passes through a prism
apparent magnitude the brightness of a star as seen from the Earth
absolute magnitude the brightness that a star would have at a distance of 32.6 light years from Earth
light year the distance that light travels in one year
parallax the apparent shift in the position of an object when viewed from different locations
red giant a large reddish star late in its life cycle. fusing helium to other heavier elements
white dwarf a small, hot, dim star that is the leftover center of an old star
H-R Diagram Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, a graph that shows the relationship between a star's surface temperature and absolute magnitude.
Main sequence the location on the H-R diagram where most stars lie. (Hydrogen is being fused to helium)
Supernova a gigantic explosion in which a massive star collapses and throws its outer layers into space
neutron star a star that has collapsed under gravity to the point that the electrons and protons have smashed together to form neutrons
pulsar a rapidly spinning neutron star that emits rapid pulses of radio and optical energy
black hole an object so massive and dense that even light cannot escape its gravity
galaxy a collection of stars, dust and gas bound together by gravity
nebula a large cloud of dust and gas in interstellar space; a region in space where stars are born or where stars explode at teh end of their lives
globular cluster s tight group of stars that looks like a ball and contains up to 1 million stars
open cluster a group of stars that are close together relative to surrounding stars
quasar a very luminus, starlike object that generates energy at a high rate; quasars are thought to be the most distant objects in the universe
cosmology the study of the origin, properties, processes, and evolution of the universe
big bang theory the theory that states the universe began with a tremendous explosion 13.7 billion years ago
* life cycle of a star diagram: can you interpret and answer questions based on it? Be able to do the same thing as your "pop" quiz. Do you know the order? What each part means?
*H-R diagram: can you interpret and answer questions based on it? what is on its axes? Where certain stars are located? Where is the main sequence?
*magnitude bright vs dim stars
*asscoiation between color, temperature, and age of a star For example: blue stars= very hot and young in age
*know the life cycle of stars 1. describe each stage 2. know the order of the diagram 3. relate it to our sun 4. how do we know which path a star will follow
*know how stars form ex: in a stellar nebula that is made of gas and dust and is pulled together by gravity. makes protostar
*know types of galaxies and their characterisitcs use galaxy handout to help: know which is our galaxy, the types of stars in each
*what will happen to the universe according to scientists- there are multiple possibilities
*why do scientists study distant galaxies this is an objective from section 3 and a bell work question- be able to explain
*know absorption lines and emission lines How are they related? What does each look like? What do they tell us?
* how do we figure the age of the universe? there are 2 ways...
* cosmic background radiation what is it? what does it show us?
* what binds a galaxy together gravity of course!
*know the scale of the universe think about our galactic address activity
*open clusters and globular clusters what are they, how do they differ
* neutron star and pulsar what are they, how do they differ
Created by: kibbylj