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Terms & Positioning

Textbook of Radiographic Positioning and Related Anatomy Ch 1 Learning Exercises

The lowest level of structuaral organization of the human body is the: Chemical Level
Four basic types of tisues in the body: Epithelial, Connective, Muscular, Nervous
The 10 systems of the human body: Skeletal, Circulatory, Digestive, Respiratory, Urinary, Reproductive, Nervous, Muscular, Endocrine, Integumentary
Eliminates solid waste from the body Digestive System
Regulates fluid and electrolyte balance and volume Urinary System
Maintains posture Muscular System
Regulates body activities with electical impulses Nervous System
Regulates body activities through various hormones Endocrine System
Eliminates carbon dioxide from the blood Respiratory System
Receives stimuli, such as temperature, pressure, and pain Integumentary System
Reproduces the organism Reproductive System
Helps regulate body temperature Circulatory System
Supports and protects many soft tissues of the body Skeletal System
True or False: One of the six functions of the circulatory system is to protect against disease True
This body system regulates body temperature: Integumentary System
What is the largest organ system in the body? Integumentary System
List the two divisions of the human skeleton Appendicular and Axial
True or False: The adult skeleton system contains 256 bones. False (206)
True or False: The scapula is part of the axial skeleton. False (appendicular skeleton)
True or False: The skull is part of the axial skeleton. True
True of False: The pelvis is part of the appendicular skeleton. True
List the four classifications of bones Long Bones, Short Bones, Flat Bones, Irregular Bones
The outer coveringof a long bone, which is composed of a dense, fibrous membrane, is called what? Periosteum
Which aspect of long bones is responsible for the production of red blood cells? Medullary Aspect
Which aspect of the long bone is essential for bone growth, repair, and nutrition? Periosteum
Identify primary and secondary growth centers for long bones Primary growth center: the body (diaphysis) Secondary growth center: epiphyses
True of False: Epiphyseal fusion of the long bones is complete by the age of 16 year False (25 years)
What is the wIder portion of a long bone in which bone growth in length occurs Metaphysis
What are the three functional classifications of joints? Synarthrosis, Amphiarthrosis, Diathrosis
What are the three structual classifications of joints? Fibrous, Connective, Synovial
First carpometacarpal of thumb Synovial Joint
Roots around teeth Fibrous Joint
Proximal radioulnar joint Synovial Joint
Skull sutures Fibrous Joint
Epiphyses Cartilaginous Joint
Interphalangeal joints Synovial Joints
Distal tibiofibular joint Fibrous Joint
Intervertebral disk space Cartilaginous Joint
Symphysis pubis Cartilaginous Joint
Hip Joint Synovial Joint
What are the seven types of movement for synovial joints? Plane(Gliding) Ginglymus(Hinge) Trochoid(Pivot) Ellipsoid(Condylar) Seller(Saddle) Spheroidal(Ball and Socket) Bicondylar
First carpometacarpal joint Sellar
Elbow joint Ginglymus
Shoulder blade Spheroidal
Intercarpal joint Plane
Wrist joint Ellipsoidal
Temporomandibular joint Bicondylar
First and secnond cervical vertebra joint Trochoidal
Distal radioulnar joint Trochoidal
Second interphalangeal joint Ginglymus
Ankle joint Sellar
Knee joint Bicondylar
Third metacarpophalangeal joint Ellipsoidal
What is an image of a patient's anatomic parts as porduced by the actions of x-rays on an imager receptor? Radiograph
What is the aspect of an x-ray beam that has the least divergence? Centeral Ray
Upright position with the arms abducted, palms forward, and head and feet directed straight ahead Anatomic Position
Vertical plane that divides the body into equal right and left parts Mid-Sagittal Plane
the vertical plane that divides the body into equal anterior and posterior parts Mid-Coronal Plane
A plane taken at right angels along any point of the longitudinal axis of the body Transverse/Axial Plane
True or False: The base plane of the skull is a plane located between the infraorbital margin of the orbit and the superior margin of the external auditory meatus. True
True or False: The Frankfort horizontal plane is also referred to as the midcoronal plane. False
The direction or path of the central ray defines the following positions term Projection
The positioning term that describes the general and specific body position is: Position
True or False: Oblique and lateral positions are described according to the side ofthe body closest to the image receptor True
True or False: Decubitus positions always use a horizontal x-ray beam True
What is the name of the position in which the body is turned 90 degrees from a true anteriorposterior(AP) or posterioanterior(PA) projection Lateral Position
A patient is erect with the back to the image receptor. The left side of the body is turned 45 degrees toward the image receptor. What is this Position? Left Posterior Oblique(LPO)
A patient is recumbent facing the image receptor. The right side of the body is turned 15 degrees toward the image receptor. What is this position? Right Anterior Oblique(RAO)
The patient is lying on his back. The x-ray beam is directed horizontally and enters the right side of the body and exits the left side of the body. An image receptor is placed against the left side of the patient. Which specific position has been used? Dorsal Decubitus(Left Lateral)
The patient is erect with the right side of the body against the image receptor. The x-ray beam enters the left side and exits the right side of the body. What position has been preformed? Right Lateral
A patient is lying on the left side of a cart. The x-ray beam is directed horizontally and enters the posterior surface and exits the anterior aspect of the body. The image receptor is against the anterior surface. Which specific position has been perform Left Lateral Decubitus(PA)
Palm of the hand Palmar
Lying on the back facing upward Supine
An upright position Erect
Lying down in any position Recumbent
Front half of the patient Anterior
Top or anterior surface of the foot Dorsum Pedis
Position in which head is higher than the feet Fowlers
Posterior aspect of the foot Plantar
Position in which the head is lower than the feet Trendelenburg
Back half of the patient Posterior
What is the name of the projection in which the central way enters the anterior surface and exits the posterior surface Anteriorposterior
A projection using a CR angle of 10 percent or more directed parallel along the long axis of hte body or body part is Axial Projection
The specific position that demonstrates the apices of teh lungs, without superimposition of the clavicles Apical Lordotic
True or False: Radiographic "view" is not a correct positioning term in the United States True
True or False: The term varus describes the bending of a port outward False(inward, toward midline)
Anteroposterior Projection
Prone Position
Trendelenburg Position
Left posterior oblique Position
Left lateral chest Position
Mediolateral ankle Projection
Tangential Projection
Lordotic Position
Inferosuperior acial Projection
Left lateral decubitus Position
Flexion Extension
Ulnar Deviation Radial Deviation
Dorsiflexion Plantarflexion
Eversion Inversion
Lateral(external) Rotation Medial (internal) Rotation
Abduction Adduction
Supination Pronation
Retraction Protraction
Depression Elevation
Near the source or beginning Proximal
On the opposite side Contralateral
Toward the center Medial
Toward the head end of the body Cephalad or Superior
Away from the source or beginning Distal
Outside or outward Exterior
On the same side Ipsilateral
Near the skin surface Superficial
Away from the head end Caudad or Inferior
Farther from the skin surface Deep
Moving or thrusting the jaw forward form the normal position is an example of Protraction
To turn or bend the wrist toward the radius side is called Radial Deviation
Which two types of information should be imprinted on every radiographic image? Patient Name and Date, and Anatomic Side Markers
True or False: a technologist has the right to refuse to perform an examination on a patient whom he or she finds offensive. False
True or False: A technologist is responsible for the professional decisions he or she makes during care of a patient. True
True or False: The technologist is responsible for communicating with the patient to obtain pertinent clincal information. True
True or False: The technologist is expected to provide a preliminary interpretation of radiographic findings to the referring physician. False
True or False: The technologist must reveal confidential information pertaining to a patient who is less than 18 years of age to the patient or guardian. False
What two are rules/principles for determining positioning routines as they relate to the maximum number of projections required in a basic routine? A minimum of two projections 90 degrees from each other, and a minimum of three projections when the joints are in the prime interest area
What is the minimum number of projections for the: Foot Three
What is the minimum number of projections for the: Chest Two
What is the minimum number of projections for the: Wrist Three
What is the minimum number of projections for the: Tibia/Fibula Two
What is the minimum number of projections for the: Humerus Two
What is the minimum number of projections for the: Fifth Toe Three
What is the minimum number of projections for the: Postreduction of wrist Two
What is the minimum number of projections for the: Left Hip Two
What is the minimum number of projections for the: Knee Three
What is the minimum number of projections for the: Pelvis(non-hip injury) One
A young child enters the emergency room with a fractured forearm. After one projection is completed that confirms a fracture, the child refuses to move the forearm for any additional projections. What is the minimum number of projections needed? Two
If additional projections are required for a routine forearm series, what should the technologist do with the young patient? Rather than move the forearm for a second projection, place the IR and x-ray tube as needed for the second projections 90 degrees from the first projection.
The physical localization of topographic landmarks on a patient is called: Palpation
Which two landmarks may not be palpated because of institutional policy? Ischial Tuberosity, and Symphysis Pubis
True or False: Always place a radiograph for viewing as teh IR "sees" the patient. The patients left is to the viewer's left on an AP projection) False, the patients left is to the viewers right on an AP projection
True or false: Most CT and MRI images are viewed so that the patient's right is to the viewer's left. True
The radiographic anolog(film) image is composed of ________ on a polyester base. Metallic Silver
What are the four image quality factors of a radiograph? Density, Spatial Resolution, Contrast, Exposure Latitude
The range of exposure over which a film produces an acceptable image Exposure Latitude
Which specific exposure factor controls the quality or pentrationg ability of the x-ray beam? Kilovoltage(kVp)
Exposure time is usually expressed in units of Milliseconds(ms)
The amount of blackness seen on a prcessed radiograph is called Density
The primary controlling factor for the overall blackness on a radiograph is mAs
If the distance between the x-ray tube and IR is increased from 40 to 80 inches, what specific effect will it have on the radiographic density, if other fractors are not changed? Decrease density to 25%
Which term is used to describe a radiograph that has too little density? Under Exposure
Doubling the mAs will result in _______ the denisty of the IR image Doubling
True or False: kV must be altered to chance the radiographic density on the IR False, mAs will change the density, kVp will change the contrast
When analog images, using manual technique settings, are underexposed or overexposed, a minimum chance in mAs of ________ is required to make a visible difference in the radiographic density 25% to 30%
According to the anode heel effect, the x-ray beam is less intense at the(anode or cathode) end of the x-ray tube Anode
To best use the anode heel effect, the thicker part of the anatomic structure should be place under the (anode or cathode) end of the x-ray tube Cathode
What device or method (other than the anode heel effect)may be used to compensate for the anatomic part thickness difference and prduce an acceptable density of the IR image Compensating Filters
What are three common types of compensating filters Wedge Filter, Trough Filter, Boomerang Filter
Which type of compensationg filter is used commonly for AP projections of the thorasic spine? Wedge Filter
Which type of compensating filter permits soft tissue and obny detail of the shoulder to be equally visualized? Boomerang Filter
A radiograph produced using conventional analog cassettes resulted in too little density. The origanal exposure was 5 mAs. What mAs is needed to correct the density(density needs to be doubled) 10 mAs
The difference in density on adjacent areas of the radiograph defines Radiographic Contrast
What is the primary controlling factor for radiographic contrast kVp
What are the two scales of radiographic contrast, and identify which is classified as high contrast and which is low contrast. Long Scale Contrast(low contrast), Short Scale Contrast(high contrast)
Which scale of contrast is produced with a 110-kV technique Long Scale Contrast(low contrast)
True or False: A 50-kV technique produces a high contrast image True
True of False: A low-contrast image demonstrastes more shades of gray on the radiograph True
Which of the following sets of exposures factors will result in the least patient exposure and produce long-scale contrast on a PA chest (50 kV, 800 mAs or 110 kV, to mAs) 110 kV at 10 mAs
A radiograph of a hand is underexposed. The original technique used was 55kV with 2.5 mAs. Keeping the mAs and increasing the kV what would the new kV be to double density? 8 - 10kV
If an anoatomic part measures greater than _____cm a grid must be used 10cm
Identify the type of grid cuttoff that is created: The central ray (CR)and face of grid are not perpendicular Off-Level Grid Cutoff
Identify the type of grid cuttoff that is created: The SID is set beyond the focal range of the grid Off-Focused Grid Cutoff
Identify the type of grid cuttoff that is created: The back of the grid is facing the x-ray tube Upside Down Grid Cutoff
The recorded sharpness of structures of objects on the radiograph defines Spatial Resolution/Definiton
The lack of visible sharpness is Blur/Unsharpness
What are the three geometric factors that control or influence image resolution Focal Spot Size, Source Image Receptor Distance(SID), Object Image Receptor Distance(OID)
The term that describes the unsharp edges of the projected image Penumbra
True or False: The use of a small focal spot will entirely eliminate the problem identified in teh previous question False
The greatest contributor to image unsharpness as related to positioning Motion
Created by: Dallas1856