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Med Ana - Gametes 2

List the 5 Major hormones related to the menstrual cycle Ant Pituitary: FSH, LH Gonadal: estrogen, progesterone Placental: hCG
target organ and fxn for FSH ovary target. required for follicle dev, increase estrogen secretion from follicles, and involved in ovulation
target organ and fxn for LH ovary target. involved in ovulation, transforms thecal cells into lutenizing cells that secrete progesterone and estrogen
target organ and fxn for estrogen uterus target. made by follicle and thecal cells to regenerate endometrium, proliferate uterine glands, and cause secondary sexual characteristics
target organ and fxn for progesterone uterus target. prepares uterus for implantation, maintains uterus during pregnancy, and inhibits ovulation
Name the major layers of the uterus endometrium, mymetrium, and perimetrium
Give the 5 phases of the of the uterine cycle Reparative, proliferative (estrogenal), Secratory (progesteronal), Ischemic, menstrual
Reparative phase 5-6 days. begins before bleeding stops and uterus re-grows surface
proliferative (estrogenal) phase 7-14 days. mucosa doubles in thickness, glands and arteries form
Secretory (progesteronal) phase 15-27 days. cervical mucuous forms vaginal plug, body temp increases, glands increases glycogen secretion
ischemic phase 28 day. arteries constrict and tissue become necrotic
menstrual phase 1-5 days. top layers slough, blood passes to fascilitate sloughing and eventually forms a clot
When does male gametogenesis begin and what is it called? Spermatogeneis - begins at puberty to death
Spermatogonia differentiate from PGC. Type A from at 3 months-puberty (true stem cells). Type B form from type A and undergo spermatogeneis
Spermiogenesis NOT spermatogensis!! process where primary spermatocytes change into spermatids
Primary Spermatocytes divide (incompletely) my meiosis I to make secondary spermatocytes
Secondary spermatocytes undergo meiosis II to form spermatids (still no cytokinesis)
Spermatids have undergo gone spermiogenesis
Spermatozoa fully developed spermatids
Sertoli Cells cells of the tubules of the testes that spermatids attach. These provide support and nutrition for maturing sperm
Acrosome vesicle containing enzymes to penetrate egg
Steps of spermatogenesis Spermatogonium (2N) -> Primary Spermatocyte (2N) -> secondary spermatocyte (1N) -> spermatid (1N)-capacitation-> Spermatozoa
Capciation process where sperm become metabollically active and can fertilize eggs
How many spermatozoa are found in average ejaculate? 40-100 million
Factors that can alter # of normal spermatozoa in ejaculate radiation, heat, pesticides, narcotics, carcinogens, severe allergic reactions
What sperm count designates infertility? less than 75% of normal
What does fertilization accomplish? restores diploid number, determines sex, begins clevage and first cell division
Give the 5 phases of fertilization penetration of corona radiata and binding to zona. Acrosomal rxn - Ca flux that increases pH and releases acrosome. Fusion of membranes causes Ca flux in egg. Zona Rxn-cortical granules release in response to Ca and make zona impenetrable. pronuclei fuse
acrosin proteolytic enzyme in acrosome
pronucleus 2 haploid sperm and egg nuclei before fusion
zygote official zero time of dev that occurs when chromosomes align at plate
blastomeres increasingly smaller cells formed by first clevages after fertilization
hydatidiform moles placenta abnormality where chorionic villi swell and form grape-like vesicles
complete mole no embyronic tissue, only placental. all chromosomal material is paternal. form by 2 sperm fertilize egg without a nucleus and fuse together; or 1 sperm fertlizes egg w/out a nucleus and sperm pronuclei undergoes mitosis. spontaneously abort
Karyotype of complete moles 2 sperm fertilize: XX, XY, YY (YY die) 1 sperm fertilizes: XX or YY (YY dies
Partial mole some embryonic tissue present. abort in 2nd trimester and usually are triploid
Created by: c.phill