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Med Anat 1

Gametes 1

Teratogen environmental agent that can cause developmental disruptions if mother is exposed
Teratology study of birth defects
How frequent are congenital defects in the general population? Major structural anomalies in 3-4%
Diploid 2 chromatin strands that code for same trait (paternal + maternal)
Haploid 1 chromatin strand (paternal or maternal)
Chromatin uncondensed chromosomes
Chromatids condensed chromatin strands
Sexual reproduction mixing genomes from 2 individuals to produce offspring genetically different from parent
Karyotype 46 individual chromatin strands arranged in 23 pairs of maternal/paternal homologs(22 autosomes + 1 sex)
Sister Chromatids 2 replicated chromotids held together at a centromere to form a chromosome
Genetic recombination process of DNA exchange where each generation gets a novel assortment of genes
How is genetic recombination accomplished? cycles of haploidy (i.e. forming gametes), cell fusion (fertilization), diploidy, and meiosis
Steps of Meiosis I (1)condensation into chromatids, (2) Synapsis (lining up at plate) of homologs next to each other, (3)Separation of materal or paternal homolog into each cell
Steps of Meiosis II *NO DNA SYNTHESIS* (1) centromeres align at plate when chromatids end to end, (2) separation of sisters to opposite sides of cell
Product of Meiosis I 2 Haploid 2N cells
Product of Meiosis II 4 Haploid 1N cells
Do homologs pair side by side in meiosis or mitosis? Meiosis - in meiosis I
What is the ploidy of a cell after S-phase Diploid 4N
Product of Mitosis 2 Diploid 2N cells
How do chromosomes align in mitosis? Homologs are all end to end
Centromere attach duplicated sister chromatids after S phase
Chiasmata attach maternal and paternal homologs
Crossover occurs in Prophase I where parts of homologs are exchanged by breaking maternal DNA and exchanging with paternal homolog
Ploidy (n) Number of DNA strands (chromatin) in cell coding for each type of chromosome
Synapsis Lining up at metaphase plate
Nondisjunction both members of pair (either homolog or sisters) move into same cell. Occurs in Meiosis I or II
Triploidy/Trisomy daughter cell receives 24 chromosomes
Monoploidy/Monosomy daughter cell receives 22 chromosomes
Aneuploidy abnormal # of chromosomes
Polyploidy 2+ of the haploid number of chromsomes
What is the role of chiasmata in Meiosis? play role analogous to centromere in mitosis: hold the homologs together on spindle and break during anaphase
What is the role of Chiasmata in crossover? Physically connect maternal and paternal by forming the synaptoneal complex to keep homologs together and aligned for proper crossover
Primordial Germ Cells (PGC) cells in the yolk sac wall (mesoderm) that migrate into the body wall and populate the genital ridge to become germ cells
Where do PGC originate mesodermal layer of yolk sac wall
What do PGC become? germ cells - oogoinia and spermatogonia
Teratomas stray PGC that form benign or malignant tumors
Ovum oocyte released during ovulation that gets fertilized
oogonia 2N. differentiate from PGC and proliferate to form oocyte
Give the major steps of female gametogenesis (up to graafian) (1)PGC enters gonad and differentiates to oogonia, (2)Oogonia arrests in prophase 1 forming a primordial follicle, (3)5-10 follicles mature into primary follicles, (4)Antrum forms making secondary follicle,
Give the major steps of female gametogenesis (from graafian) (5) Follicle matures into a Graafian and oocyte finishes meiosis I to form secondary oocyte (6)Oocyte starts meiosis II and arrest at metaphase II, (7)Follicle is ovulated and if fertilized, finishes meiosis II
What is the time span for female gametogenesis? starts in fetal development and ends at menopause
Primordial follicle differentiate from oogonia. Surrounded by single layer of follicular cells. Oocyte arrested in prophase I
Primary Follicle Follicle is enlarge and folicular cells are cuboidal and become stratified. Contains zona pellucida around primary oocyte, stratum granulosum, and 2 layers of thecal cells
Secondary Follicle Granulosa cells increase and intracellular fluid increases to create the follicular antrum
Graafian Follicle Stratum granulosa now entirely on outer part of follicle with a hillock of cells called cummulus oophorus and corona radiata on covering oocyte. Oocyte arrests in metaphase II becoming a secondary oocyte
Ovulate Follicle Corona radiata still cover secondary oocyte and its still arrested in metaphase II. Increased blood flow cause follicle to swell even more as cumulus cells loss contacts and disintegrate
zona pellucida protein membrane that separates the oocyte from the follicle cells
cumulus oophorus hillock of granulosa cells in a graafian follicle
corona radiata cells that cover surface of oocyte that continue to cover it after ovulation
What is the difference between a primary and secondary oocyte? Primary is arrested in Prophase I while a secondary has finished meiosis I and is arrested in Metaphase II
When does ovulation occur? after the levels of FSH and LH peak when oocyte starts meiosis II
What happens to the follicle after ovulation? oocyte enter oviduct. if fertilization fails ovum degenerates
Ovulation process increased blood flow cause follicle to swell and edema. enyzmes degrade basement layer of ovary. cumulus cells loose cell contacts and disintegrate in response to FSH and LH
Corpus Luteum temporary endocrine organ from granulosa lutein cells from leftover granulosa cells. Produces progesterone and estrogen to prepare endometrium for fertilized ovum
Corpus luteum of pregnancy maintained by hCG to fill progesterone and estrogen demands until the placentas can do so
Corpus albicans scar left from corpus luteum
Corpus atreticum (ateric follicles) follicles that never reached maturity and degenerate
Lutein cells left-over granulosa cells that become corpus luteum
human choriogonadotropin (hCG) hormone made by trophoblast cells that maintains corpus luteum
Created by: c.phill