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astro111n_ch6&7

astro111n

QuestionAnswer
The largest terrestrial planet and jovian planet are, respectively: Earth and Jupiter.
Assuming that other planetary systems form in the same way as our solar system formed, where would you expect to find terrestrial planets? Terrestrial planets will likely be located nearer the planetary system’s star than any jovian planets.
Compared to terrestrial planets, jovian planets are ________ more massive and lower in average density
Which planet is approximately halfway between Pluto’s orbit and the Sun? Uranus, the seventh planet from the Sun
The dwarf planet Eris was discovered in 2005, orbiting the Sun at an average distance about twice that of Pluto. In which of the following ways do Pluto and Eris differ from the terrestrial and jovian planets in our solar system? Both Pluto and Eris are smaller than any of the terrestrial planets. Both Pluto and Eris travel in more elliptical orbits than any of the terrestrial or jovian planets.Both Pluto and Eris are less massive than any of the terrestrial or jovian planets.
In essence, the nebular theory holds that _________. our solar system formed from the collapse of an interstellar cloud of gas and dust
What substances were found within the inner 0.3 AU of the solar system before planets began to form? rocks, metals, hydrogen compounds, hydrogen, and helium, all in gaseous form
What substances existed as solid flakes within the inner 0.3 AU of the solar system before planets began to form? none
Where would you expect terrestrial planets to form in the solar nebula? anywhere between 0.3 AU and the frost line
The jovian planets are thought to have formed as gravity drew hydrogen and helium gas around planetesimals made of __________. rocks, metals, and ices
Which of the following lists the planets of our solar system in the correct order from closest to farthest from the Sun? Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
Suppose you view the solar system from high above Earth's North Pole. Which of the following statements about planetary orbits will be true? All the planets orbit counterclockwise around the Sun.
Which of the following statements about our Sun is not true? The Sun's diameter is about 5 times that of Earth.
Which of the following is not true of Mercury? It has been studied closely by several NASA spacecraft.
Which of the following statements about Mars is not true? We could survive on Mars without spacesuits, as long as we brought oxygen in scuba tanks.
The planet in our solar system with the highest average surface temperature is _________. Venus
The terrestrial planets in our solar system are _________. Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars.
The Jovian planets in our solar system are _________. Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.The jovian planets are all much larger than the terrestrial planets.
Which Jovian planet does not have rings? Neptune, Uranus, Mars,Jupiter, All the Jovian planets have rings
Which moons are sometimes called the Galilean moons? The four largest moons of Jupiter: Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto.
When we say that jovian planets contain significant amounts of hydrogen compounds, we mean all the following chemicals except _________. carbon dioxide
In essence, the nebular theory holds that _________. our solar system formed from the collapse of an interstellar cloud of gas and dust
According to modern science, what was the approximate chemical composition of the solar nebula? 98% hydrogen and helium, 2% everything else
The terrestrial planets are made almost entirely of elements heavier than hydrogen and helium. According to modern science, where did these elements come from? They were produced by stars that lived and died before our solar system was born.
According to our theory of solar system formation, what three major changes occurred in the solar nebula as it shrank in size? It got hotter, its rate of rotation increased, and it flattened into a disk.
Which of the following types of material can condense into what we call ice at low temperatures? Hydrogen compounds
According to our present theory of solar system formation, which of the following lists the major ingredients of the solar nebula in order from the most abundant to the least abundant? hydrogen and helium gas; hydrogen compounds; rock; metal
What do we mean by the frost line when we discuss the formation of planets in the solar nebula? It is a circle at a particular distance from the Sun, beyond which the temperature was low enough for ices to condense.
What do we mean by accretion in the context of planet formation? The growth of planetesimals from smaller solid particles that collided and stuck together
According to our theory of solar system formation, what are asteroids and comets? Leftover planetesimals that never accreted into planets
What do we mean by the period of heavy bombardment in the context of the history of our solar system? The first few hundred million years after the planets formed, which is when most impact craters were formed
What is the giant impact hypothesis for the origin of the Moon? he Moon formed from material blasted out of the Earth's mantle and crust by the impact of a Mars-size object.
Suppose you start with 1 kilogram of a radioactive substance that has a half-life of 10 years. Which of the following statements will be true after 20 years pass? You'll have 0.25 kilogram of the radioactive substance remaining.
According to modern scientific dating techniques, approximately how old is the solar system? 4.5 billion years
What is an "extrasolar planet"? A planet that orbits a star that is not our own Sun
In essence, the Kepler mission is searching for extrasolar planets by____________. monitoring stars for slight dimming that might occur as unseen planets pass in front of them
On average, Venus has the hottest surface temperature of any planet in the solar system. true
Our Moon is about the same size as moons of the other terrestrial planets. false
The weather conditions on Mars today are much different than they were in the distant past. true
Moons cannot have atmospheres, active volcanoes, or liquid water. false
Saturn is the only planet in the solar system with rings. false
Neptune orbits the Sun in the opposite direction of all the other planets. false
If Pluto were as large as the planet Mercury, we would classify it as a terrestrial planet. false
Asteroids are made of essentially the same materials as the terrestrial planets. true
When scientists say that our solar system is about 4 billion years old, they are making a rough estimate based on guesswork about how long it should have taken planets to form. false
Which heat source continues to contribute to Earth’s internal heat? radioactive decay
Which of the following is the most basic definition of a greenhouse gas? a gas that absorbs infrared light
How many of the five terrestrial worlds are considered "geologically dead"? two
Which of the following is a strong greenhouse gas? water vapor
Assuming that features you see on Mars are similar to features found on Earth, what would a casual inspection of the interactive photo of Mars lead you to suspect about water on Mars? Surface water only exists as frozen ice.
Which of the following Mars surface features provides dramatic evidence that volcanism has played a role in shaping the surface of Mars? Olympus Mons
When you zoom in on the section labeled “Southern Highlands,” which geologic processes are most clearly evident? impact cratering and erosion
Which of the following does NOT provide evidence that Mars once had abundant liquid water on its surface? the presence of canali, discovered in the late 1800s by Giovanni Schiaparelli and mapped by Percival Lowell
Which describes our understanding of flowing water on Mars? It was important once, but no longer.
Which of the following three kinds of objects resides closer to the Sun on average? asteroids
When we say that jovian planets contain significant amounts of hydrogen compounds, we mean all the following chemicals EXCEPT _________. carbon dioxide
The jovian planets in our solar system are _________. Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune
Which of the following best explains why finding 1 planet with such a moon is consistent with the nebular theory, while finding 6 planets with such moons is not consistent? Unusually large moons form in giant impacts, which are relatively rare events.
Consider the hypothetical discovery from Part A reading: "A star's 5 terrestrial planets orbit in the opposite direction of its 3 jovian planets." This discovery would be inconsistent with the nebular theory because the theory holds that __________. all the planets formed in a rotating, disk-shaped nebula
Consider the hypothetical discovery from Part A reading: "Beyond its jovian planets, a star has two ice-rich objects as large as Mars." This discovery is consistent with the nebular theory, because this theory predicts that _________. this might have happened in our own solar system if it had taken longer for the solar wind to clear the solar nebula
which of the following is not one of the four major features of the solar system? The solar system contains eight planets plus dwarf planets (including Ceres, Pluto, and Eris).
Which of the following correctly describe patterns of motion in the solar system? Planets closer to the Sun move around their orbits at higher speed than planets farther from the Sun. All the planets (not counting Pluto) have nearly circular orbits. All the planets (not counting Pluto) orbit the Sun in nearly the same plane.
Now consider the second major characteristic (two types of planets). Which of the following statements are true? Jovian planets have more moons than terrestrial planets.Jovian planets are larger in size than terrestrial planets. Jovian planets are larger in mass than terrestrial planets. jovian planets orbit farther from the Sun than terrestrial planets.
The solar system contains vast numbers of small bodies, which we call asteroids when they are rocky and comets when they are icy. These small bodies are concentrated in the region(s) of the solar system that we call __________. the Kuiper belt ,asteroid belt, the Oort cloud
All the following statements are true. Which of them are considered to be "exceptions" to the general trends described by the first three major characteristics of the solar system? Venus rotates in a direction opposite to the rotation of the other terrestrial planets.Uranus rotates with an axis tilt that lies nearly in the ecliptic plane. Our Moon has a diameter more than 1/4 the diameter of Earth.
Scientifically, which of the following possible conclusions is justified from the patterns of motion alone? The planets were not each born in a separate, random event.
Now consider why the observed patterns of motion lead to the conclusion that the planets were not born in separate, random events. The reason for this conclusion is that, if the planets had been born in separate, random events, we would expect that planetary orbits would have many different orientations and directions, rather than all being in the same direction and in the same plane
Today, scientists have a theory (the nebular theory) that explains all the major characteristics of the solar system. In science, we expect a theory like this not only to explain the observed characteristics of our solar system but also to make testable predictions about other solar systems
Based on what we know about our own solar system, the discovery of hot Jupiters came as a surprise to scientists because these planets are __________ so close to their stars
when the first hot Jupiters were discovered, their existence seemed inconsistent with the nebular theory because this theory predicts that __ jovian planets can form only in the cold, outer regions of a solar system
Which statement below does not describe a scientifically reasonable explanation for why the nebular theory failed to predict the existence of the hot Jupiters? The nebular theory applies only to our solar system; other solar systems need their own formation theories.
Why did this hypothesis gain favor over the alternatives? Computer models that simulate planetary formation show that interactions between young planets and the surrounding disk of gas and dust can cause planetary migration.
Which of the following statements are consistent with this revised theory? Jovian planets can migrate inward and disrupt the orbits of terrestrial planets.Terrestrial planets always form in the warm, inner regions of their star system. jovian planets always form in the cold, outer regions of their star system.
Which technique could detect a planet in an orbit that is face-on to the Earth? astrometry
Which of the following properties can be inferred from the star’s orbital period? the planet’s orbital radius
Is it possible to determine the planet's mass from the star's velocity curve? yes, by measuring both the star's orbital period and its change in velocity over the orbi
Consider the planet that causes the stellar motion shown in Plot 2 (be sure you have clicked the “Plot 2” button in the lower window of the animation). What can be said about a different planet orbiting the same star with an orbital period of 500 days? The planet must be closer to the star.
The two most important processes in heating the interiors of the terrestrial worlds are __________ (1) heat deposited by the process of formation; (2) heat released by radioactive decay
Suppose we use a baseball to represent Earth. On this scale, the other terrestrial worlds (Mercury, Venus, the Moon, and Mars) would range in size approximately from that of _________. a golf ball to a baseball
Which of a planet's fundamental properties has the greatest effect on its level of volcanic and tectonic activity? size
What do we conclude if a planet has few impact craters of any size? Other geological processes have wiped out craters.
Suppose we represent Earth with a basketball. On this scale, most of the air in Earth's atmosphere would fit in a layer that is _________. about the thickness of a sheet of paper
What observational evidence supports the idea that Mercury once shrank by some 20 kilometers in radius? the presence of many long, tall cliffs
The oxygen in Earth’s atmosphere was released by life
Where is the most CO2 that has outgassed from Earth's volcanoes? locked up in rocks
Created by: zemca