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U99-Weather 22

(22) Atmosphere

atmosphere a mixture of gases that surrounds a planet
ozone a gas molecule that is made up of three oxygen atoms
atmospheric pressure the force per unit area that is exerted on a surface by the weight of the atmosphere
troposphere the layer of the atmosphere where weather occurs
stratosphere this layer of the atmosphere contains the ozone layer
mesosphere coldest layer of the atmosphere
thermosphere this layer includes the ionosphere
electromagnetic spectrum all the frequencies or wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation
albedo the fraction of solar radiation that is reflected off the surface of an object
greenhouse effect the warming of the lower atmosphere when gases absorb and reradiate infrared radiation
conduction the transfer of energy as heat through a material
convection the movement of matter due to differences in density, caused by temperature variations
radiation energy that is transferred by electromagnetic energy
Coriolis effect the curving path of a moving object from an otherwise straight path due to the Earth's rotation
trade winds prevailing winds that blow from east to west from 0 to 30 deg latitude
polar easterlies prevailing winds that blow east to west between 60 & 90 deg latitude
westerlies prevailing winds that blow from west to east between 30 to 60 deg latitudes
jet stream a narrow band of strong winds that blow in the upper troposphere
water vapor water in the form of an invisible gas
ozone layer layer of gas in the stratosphere that absorbs ultraviolet radiation
particulates tiny, solid particles
barometer instrument used to measure air pressure
mercurial containing mercury
aneroid without liquid
altimeter an aneroid barometer used to measure altitude
ionosphere an electrified region of the upper atmosphere where fairly large concentrations of ions and free electrons exist
auroras an atmospheric phenomenon consisting of bands of light caused by charged solar particles
exosphere the outermost atmospheric layer
scattering the process by which small particles in the atmosphere deflect radiation from its path into different directions
reflect light is bouncing back from a surface
absorb to transform radiant energy into heat
doldrums a narrow zone near the equator with weak and variable winds
horse latitudes a sub-tropical high-pressure zone where winds are weak and variable
local winds winds that blow distances less than 100 km, caused by local temperature variations