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Ch. 2

A&P

Question Answer
Organic compound are usually held together by __________ bonds covalent
carbon has ___ electrons in its outermost (valence) shell 4
What are some elements that bond with carbon that make an organic compound? (5) hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus
the chain of carbon atoms in an organic molecule is called the ____ _______ carbon skeleton
many of the carbons are bonded to hydrogen atoms yielding a ___________ hydrocarbon
also attached to the carbon skeleton are distinctive _______ ________, other atoms or molecules bound to the hydrocarbon skeleton. Functional groups
each type of functional group has a specific arrangement of atoms the confers characteristics _______ ______ on the organic molecule attached to it chemical properties
small organic molecules can combine into very large molecules that are called ___________ macromolecules
macromolecules are usually ______ polymers
a _______ is a large molecule formed by the covalent bond of many identical or similar small building-block molecules called monomers polymer
_______ are similar small building-block molecules that make up polymers monomers
the reaction that joins 2 monomers is a ______ _______; during this a hydrogen atom is removed from one monomer and a hydroxyl group is removed from the other to form a molecule of water dehydration synthesis
4 examples of macromolecules carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
molecules that have the same molecular formula but different structures are called ______ isomers
____ contain an -OH group, which is polar and hydrophilic due to its electronegative O atom. Molecules with many -OH dissolve easily in water alcohols
____ have an -SH group, which is polar and hydrophilic due to its electronegative S atom. thiols
Certain ____ _____ contain -SH groups, which help stabilized the shape of proteins amino acids
______ contain a carbonyl group within the carbon skeleton. Ketones
the _____ group is polar and hydrophilic due to its electronegative O atom carbonyl
______ have a carbonyl group at the end of the carbon skeleton aldehydes
_____ _____ contain a carboxyl group at the end of the carbon skeleton carboxylic acids
all ___ ____ have a -COOH group at one end amino acids
the negatively charged form of ____ predominates the pH of body cells and is hydrophilic carboxyl
_____ predominate in dietary fats and oils and also occur in our body as triglycerides ester
_____ is an ester of salicylic acid, a pain-relieving molecule found in the bark of the willow tree aspirin
____ contain a phosphate group which is very hydrophilic due to the dual negative charges. An ex is ___ ___, which transfers chemical energy btwn organic molecules during chemical reactions phosphate adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
____ have an -NH2 group which can act as a base and pick up hydrogen ion, giving the amino group a positive charge amines
at the pH of body fluids, most amino groups have a charge of ___ 1+
all amino acids have a ____ group at one end amino
_____ include sugars, glycogen, starches and cellulose carbohydrates
carbohydrates represent only_-_% of your body mass 2-3
in humans and animals, ________ function mainly as a source of chemical energy for generating ATP needed to drive metabolic reactions carbohydrates
Only a few carbohydrates are used for building structural units. Ex is ___, a type of sugar that is a building block for DNA the molecule that carries inherited genetic info deoxyribose
___, _____, and ____ are the elements found in carbohydrates carbon hydrogen oxygen
the ratio of hydrogen to oxygen atoms is usually _:_ rate 2:1
carbohydrates generally contain one ____ for each carbon atom water
the three major groups of carbohydrates, based on their size are monosaccharides disaccharides polysaccharides
monosaccharides and disaccharides are known as ____ ____ simple sugars
the monomers of carbohydrates, _______ contain from 3 to 7 carbon atoms monosaccharides
Monosaccharides and disaccharides are designed by names ending in _____ with a prefix that indicates the # of carbon atoms -ose (ex. trioses 3 carbons)
a _____ is a molecule formed from the combination of 2 monosaccharides by dehydration synthesis disaccharide
____ have the same molecular formula, but the relative positions of the oxygen and carbon atoms are different, causing the compounds to have different chemical properties isomers
disaccharide can also be split into smaller, simper molecules by ______ hydrolysis
some individuals use ___ ____ to limit their sugar consumption for medical reasons, while others do so to avoid calories that might result in weight gain artificial sweeteners (do not cause tooth decay; reduce the incidence of dental cavities)
______ molecules contain tens or hundreds of monosaccharides joined through dehydration synthesis reactions. They usually are insoluble in water and so not taste sweet. polysaccharides
the main polysaccharides in the human body is _____, which is made entirely of glucose monomers linked to one another in branching chains glycogen
______ are polysaccharides formed from glucose by plants. They are found in foods such as pasta and potatoes and are the major carbohydrate in the diet. starches
polysaccharides can be broken down into monosaccharides through ______ reactions hydrolysis
_____ is a polysaccharide formed from glucose by plants that cannot be digested by humans but does provide bulk to help eliminate feces cellulose
2nd important group of organic compounds; makes up 18-25% of body mass; contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen but do not have a ratio of 2:1 of hydrogen to oxygen lipids
the proportion of electronegative oxygen atoms in lipids is usually ___ than in carbohydrates, so there are fewer polar covalent bonds smaller
most lipids are insoluble in polar solvents such as water; they are ______ hydrophobic (only the smallest lipids, some fatty acids, can dissolve in watery blood plasma
to become more soluble in blood plasma, other lipid molecules join with hydrophilic protein molecules; this lipid/protein complex is _____ that are soluble bc the proteins are on the outside and the lipids are on the inside lipoproteins
what are examples of lipids? fatty acids, triglycerides (fats and oils), phospholipids (lipids that contain phosphorus), steroids (lipids that contain rings of carbon), eicosanoids (20-carbon lipids), fat-soluble vitamins (vitamins A,D,E,&K) and lipoproteins and others
among the simplest lipids are the ___ ___, which are used to synthesize triglycerides and phospholipids or can be catabolized to generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Also, they can be saturated or unsaturated. fatty acid
what do fatty acids consists of? (2 things) carboxyl group and hydrocarbon chain
A ____ _____ _____ contains only single covalent bonds btwn the carbon atoms of the hydrocarbon chain. Bc they lack double bonds, each carbon atom of the hydrocarbon chain is ______ with hydrogen atoms. saturated fatty acids saturated
____ _____ ____ contains one or more double covalent bonds btwn the carbon atoms of the hydrocarbon chain; not completely saturated with hydrogen atoms; has a kink(bend) at the site of the double bond unsaturated fatty acid
if the fatty acid has just one double bond in the hydrocarbon chain, it is ______ and it has just one kink monounsaturated
if a fatty acid has more than one double bond in the hydrocarbon chain, it is _____ and it contains more than one kink polyunsaturated
the most plentiful lipids in your body and in your diet are the ______, also know as _____. It consists of 2 types of building blocks, a single glycerol molecule and 3 fatty acid molecules. triglycerides tri-acylglycerols
A 3-carbon _____ molecule forms the backbone of a triglyceride. glycerol
Three fatty acids are attached by ____ _____ reactions, one to each carbon on the glycerol backbone. The chemical bond formed where each water molecule is removed is an _____ _____. dehydration synthesis ester linkage
______ breaks down a single molecule of a triglyceride into 3 fatty acids and glycerol hydrolysis
triglycerides can be either a solid, as a ___, or a liquid, as an ___, at room temp fat oil
what are the 3 functions of triglycerides? protection insulation energy storage
a ___ is a triglyceride that is a solid at room temp and are mostly saturated fat
a fat that mainly consists of saturated fatty acids is called a ____ ___ saturated fat
examples of saturated fats? meat nonskim dairy products plant product (cocoa butter, palm oil, and coconut oil)
diets that contain large amounts of saturated fats are associated with disorders such as _____ and ____. heart disease colorectal cancer
an ____ is a triglyceride that is a liquid at room temp and are mostly unsaturated oil
the ___ at the sites of the double bonds prevent the unsaturated fatty acids from closely packing together and solidifying kink
the fatty acids of oil can either be ____ or ____. monounsaturated or polyunsaturated
____ ___ contain triglycerides that mostly consist of monounsaturated fatty acids monounsaturated fats
examples of monounsaturated fats olive oil, peanut oil, canola oil, canola oil, most nuts and avocados
____ _____ contain triglycerides that mostly consist of polyunsaturated fatty acids polyunsaturated fats
examples of polyunsaturated fats corn oil, safflower oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil and fatty fish(salmon, tuna, and mackerel)
both monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats are believed to decrease the rick of ___ ____ heart disease
triglycerides are the body's most highly concentrated form of ___ energy chemical
our capacity to store triglycerides in ____ ____ is unlimited for all practical purposed adipose (fat)
a group of fatty acids called ___ ____ ____ is essential to human health; the cannot be made by the body and must be obtained from foods or supplements essential fatty acids (EFAs)
what are the 3 important EFAs? omega-3 fatty acids omega-6 fatty acids cis-fatty acids
_ and _ are polyunsaturated fatty acids that are believed to promote health;protect against heart disease and stroke by lowering total cholesterol, raising HDL, high density lipoproteins (good cholesterol(GC) and lowering LDL(BC) low density lipoproteins omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids
What do omega-3 and omega-6 also help with? (4) decrease bone loss by increasing calcium utilization by the body; reduce symptoms of arthritis due to inflammation; promote wound healing; improve certain skin disorders; and improve mental functions
primary sources of omega-3? (5) flaxseed, fatty fish, oils that have large amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids, fish oils and walnuts
primary sources of omega-6? (5) most processed foods, eggs, baked goods, oils with large amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acid, meats
the hydrogen atoms on either side of the double bond in oleic acid are on the same side of the unsaturated fatty acid, this is called a ____ ____ cis-fatty acid
___ ___ are naturally beneficial unsaturated fatty acids that are used by the body to produce hormonelike regulators and cell membranes cis-fatty acid
when cis-fatty acids are heated, pressurized, and combined with a catalyst in a process called hydrogenation, they are changed to unhealthy _ _; in this acid, hydrogen atoms are on opposite sides of the double bond of an unsaturated fatty acid trans-fatty acids
what are some examples of hydrogenated or trans-fatty acids? (4) commercially baked goods, salty snack foods, some margarines, and fried foods
Trans-fatty acids increase total cholesterol, a decrease in HDL, an increase in LDL, and an increase in triglycerides. Bc of this what can it increase the causes of? (similar to saturated fats) increase risk in heart disease and other cardiovascular diseases
___ have a glycerol backbone and two fatty acid chains attached to the first two carbons; in the third position there is also a phosphate group phospholipids
the phosphate group (PO4^3-) links a small charged group that usually contains nitrogen to the backbone; this portion is said to be the ____ of the molecule and is ____ and due to this it can form hydrogen bonds with water molecules head polar
the two fatty acids make up the ___ of the molecule and are ___ and due to this can interact only with other lipids tail nonpolar
molecules that have both polar and nonpolar parts are called _____ amphipathic
____ _____ line up tail-to-tail in a double row to make up much of the membrane that surrounds each cell amphipathic phospholipids
what is the major lipid component of cell membranes? phospholipids
____ have four rings of carbon atoms steroids
___ ____ synthesize other steroids from cholesterol, which has a large nonpolar region consisting of the four rings and a hydrocarbon tail body cells
in the body, the commonly encountered steroids are known as ___ bc they also have at least one hydroxyl (alcohol -OH) group sterols
the polar hydroxyl group make sterols weakly ______ amphipathic
what are some examples of steroids? (6) cholesterol, estrogen and testosterone, cortisol, bile salts, vitamin D, adrenocortical hormones
What is needed for cell membrane structure; minor component of all animal cell membranes; precursor of bile salts, vitamin D, and steroid hormones? cholesterol
required for regulating sexual functions; stimulate reproductive functions and sexual characteristics? estrogen and testosterone
is necessary for maintaining normal blood sugar? cortisol
are needed for lipid digestion and absorption? bile salts
related to bone growth; helps regulate calcium level in body; needed for bone growth and repair? vitamine D
help regulate metabolism, resistance to stress, and salt and water balance? adrenocortical hormones
_____ are lipids derived from a 20-carbon fatty acid called arachidonic acid eicosanoids
what are the two principal subclasses of eicosanoids? prostaglandins and leukotrienes
_____ have a variety of functions; they modify responses to hormones, contribute to the inflammatory response, prevent stomach ulcers, dilate (enlarge) airways to lungs, regulate body temp, and influence formation of blood clots (only a few) Prostaglandins
_____ participate in allergic and inflammatory responses leukotrienes
other lipids also include fat-souble vitamins such as ____; vitamins ___, ____, and ___; and _____ beta-carotenes vitamins D, E, K lipoproteins
needed for synthesis of vitamin A; function as antioxidants carotenes
promotes wound healing, prevents tissue scarring, contributes to normal structure and function of nervous system, and functions as antioxidant vitamin E
required for synthesis of blood-clotting proteins vitamin K
transport lipids in blood, carry triglycerides and cholesterol to tissues, and remove excess cholesterol from blood lipoproteins
_ are large molecules that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; may also contain sulfur; much more complex in structure then carbohydrates and lipids; have many roles in the body and are largely responsible for the structure of body tissues proteins
proteins make up ___% of body mass 12-18%
____ are proteins that speed up most biochemical reactions enzymes
_____ are proteins that defend against invading microbes antibodies
what are the 6 types of proteins? structural regulatory contractile immunological transport catalytic
a type of protein that forms structural framework of various parts of the body? structural
a type of protein that functions as hormones that regulate various physiological processed; control growth and development; as neurotransmitters, mediate responses to nervous system regulatory
a type of protein that allows shortening of muscle cells, which produces movement? contractile
a type of protein that aid responses that protect the body against foreign substances and invading pathogens? immunological
a type of protein that carry vital substances throughout the body? transport
a type of protein that acts as enzymes that regulate biochemical reactions? catalytic
the monomers of proteins are __ ___. amino acids
each of the 20 different amino acids had a ____ atom and 3 important functional groups attached to a central carbon atom: (1) ____, (2) ____, and (3) _____ hydrogen an amino group (-NH2) an acidic carboxyl group (-COOH) a side chain (R group)
the covalent bond joining each pair of amino acids is a ____; it always forms btwn the carbon of the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the nitrogen of the amino group of another peptide bond
as the peptide bond is formed, a molecule of water is removed, making this a ____ reaction dehydration synthesis
breaking a peptide bond, as occurs during digestion of dietary proteins, is a _____ reaction (adding a water molecule) hydrolysis
when 2 amino acids combine a ___ results; when 3 amino acids combine a ___ results; when a formation of a chainlike amino acids of 4-9 occurs a ___ results and the formation of a chainlike amino acids of 10 or more a ____ occurs dipeptide tripeptide peptide polypeptide
proteins exhibit ___ levels of structural organization 4
a protein's ___ ___ is the unique sequence of amino acids that are linked by covalent peptide bonds to form a polypeptide chain; is genetically determined and any changes in a protein's amino acid sequence can have serious consequences for body cells primary structure
in ___ a nonpolar amino acid (valine) replaces a polar amino acid (glutamate) through two mutations in the oxygen-carry protein hemoglobin; this change diminished hemoglobin's water solubility sickle-cell disease
what is the result of sickle-cell disease? the altered hemoglobin tends to form crystals inside red blood cells, producing deformed, sickle-shaped cells that cannot properly squeeze through narrow blood vessels
the __ ___ of a protein is the repeated twisting or folding of neighboring amino acids in the polypeptide chain secondary structures
two common secondary structures are __ __ and __ __ __. alpha helixes (clockwise spirals) beta pleated sheets
the secondary structure of a protein is stabilized by __ bonds, which form at regular intervals along the polypeptide backbone hydrogen
the ___ ___ refers to the three-dimensional shape of a polypeptide chain tertiary structure
the strongest but least common bond in a tertiary structure is a S-S covalent bond called __ __, form btwn the sulfhydryl groups of two monomers of the amino acid cysteine disulfide bridges
often helper molecules known as _____ aid the folding process of proteins chaperones
in those proteins that contain more than one polypeptide chain, the arrangement of the individual polypeptide chains relative to one another is the __ ___ quaternary structure
a protein's unique shape permits it to interact with other molecules to carry out a specific ___ functions
on the basis of overall shape, proteins are classified as ___ or ___ fibrous globular
__ __ are insoluble in water and their polypeptide chains form long strands that are parallel to each other fibrous proteins
fibrous proteins have many __ functions structural
example of fibrous proteins (7) collagen elastin keratin dystrophin fibrin actin and myosin
strengthens bones, ligaments, and tendons collagen
provides stretch in skin, blood vessels, and lung tissue elastin
forms structure of hair and nails and waterproofs the skin keratin
reinforces parts of muscle cells dystrophin
forms blood clots fibrin
are involved in contraction of muscle cells, division in all cells, and transport of substances within cells actin and myosin
__ __ are more or less soluble in water and their polypeptide chains are spherical (globular) in shape globular proteins
globular proteins have __ functions metabolic
examples of globular proteins (8) enzymes antibodies and complement proteins hemoglobin lipoproteins albumins membrane proteins hormones (insulin)
functions as a catalysts enzymes
help protect us against diseases antibodies and complement proteins
transports oxygen hemoglobin
transports lipids and cholesterol lipoproteins
help regulate blood pH albumins
transport substances into and out of cells membrane proteins
help regulate blood sugar level hormones (insulin)
if a protein encounters an altered environment, it may unravel and lose its characteristic shape, this is called __; these proteins are no longer functional denaturation
most catalysts are protein molecules called __ enzymes
some enzymes consist of 2 parts - a protein portion called __ and a nonprotein portion called __ apoenzyme cofactor
what are the 2 things that a cofactor can be? metal ion an organic compound called coenzyme
__ often are derived from vitamins coenzyme
the names of enzymes usually end in the suffix ___ -ase
what are 3 important properties of enzymes highly specific very efficient (reactions proceed fast) subject to a variety of cellular controls
each particular enzyme binds only to specific __ - the reactant molecules on which the enzymes acts substrates
the part of the enzymes that catalyzes the reaction, called the __ __ is thought to fit the substrate like a key fits in a lick active site
in other cases the active site changes its shape to fit snugly around the substrate once the substrate enters the active site this is called an __ __ induced fit
enzyme's rate of synthesis and their concentration at any given time are under the control of a cell's __ genes
enzymes lower the __ __ of a chemical reaction by decreasing the "randomness of the collisions btwn molecules activation energy
enzymes also help bring the substrates together in the proper __ so that the reaction can occur orientation
what is it called when a substrate and an enzyme come together? enzyme-substrate complex
a __ consists of 2 monosaccharides that have combined by dehydration synthesis disaccharides
__ is made up of glucose monomers and is the stored form of carbohydrate in the human body glycogen
one glycerol and three fatty acids are the building blocks of __ triglycerides
__ are amphipathic, having both a polar and nonpolar regions phospholipids
__, which is synthesized in the liver, is the starting material for synthesis of other steroids in the body cholesterol
amino acids are the monomers used to build __ proteins
an __ speeds up a chemical reaction without being altered or consumed enzyme
__ __ so named bc they were first discovered in the nuclei of cells, are huge organic molecules that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus nucleic acids
what are the two types of nucleic acids? deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) ribonucleic acid (RNA)
__ __ forms the inherited genetic material inside each human cell deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
each __ is a segment of a DNA molecule; our __ determine the traits we inherit, and by controlling protein synthesis they regulate most of the activities that take place in body cells throughout our lives genes
__ __ relays instructions from the genes to guide each cell's synthesis of proteins from amino acids ribonucleic acid (RNA)
a nucleic acid is a chain of repeating monomers called __ nucleotides
what are the three main parts of the DNA? nitrogenous base pentose sugar (deoxyribose group) phosphate group
DNA contains 4 different nitrogenous bases, which contain atoms of __, __, __ and __ C H O N
what are the nitrogen bases in DNA? adenine (A) thymine (T) cytosine (C) guanine (G)
adenine and guanine are larger double-ring cases called __; thymine and cytosine are bases called __ purines pyrimidines
a nucleotide containing thymine is called a ___ ___, one containing adenine is called __ ___ thymine nucleotide adenine nucleotide
a five-carbon sugar called __ attached to each base in DNA deoxyribose
___ ___ alternate with pentose sugars to form the "backbone" of a DNA strand; the bases project inward from the backbone chain phosphate group
Waston-Crick __ __ model, DNA resembles a spiral ladder double helix
2 strands of alternating __ __ and __ __ form the uprights of the ladder in DNA phosphate group deoxyribose sugars
paired bases, held together by ___ bonds, form rungs in DNA hydrogen
adenine always pair with __ thymine
cytosine always pairs with __ guaine
any change that occurs in the base sequence of a DNA strand is called a __ mutation
what can mutations in DNA cause (3) death of cell cancer produce genetic defects in future generations
__ is a single-stranded RNA
the sugar in the RNA nucleotide is the pentose __ ribose
RNA contains the pyrimidine base __ instead of thymine uracil (U)
cells contain 3 different types of RNA: __, __, and __; each has a specific role to perform in carrying out the instruction coded in DNA messenger RNA ribosomal RNA transfer RNA
a technique called __ __ is used in research and in courts of law to ascertain whether a person's DNA matches the DNA obtained from samples or pieces of legal evidence such as blood stains or hairs DNA fingerprinting
__ is the "energy currency" of living systems; transfers the energy liberated in exergonic catabolic reactions to power cellular activities that require energy (endergonic reaction) adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
ATP consists of __ __ attached to __, a unit composed of adenine and five-carbon sugar ribose three phosphate groups adenosine
the enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP is called __ ATPase
removal the third phosphate group produces a molecule called __ _ adenosine diphosphate (ADP)
as the supply of ATP at any given time is limited, a mechanism exists to replenish it: the enzyme __ __ catalyzed the addition of phosphate group to ADP ATP synthase
the energy needed to attached a phosphate group to ADP is supplied mainly by the catabolism of glucose in a process called __ __ cellular respiration
cellular respiration has 2 pases __ and __ anaerobic and aerobic
in a series of reactions that do not require oxygen, glucose is partially broken down by a series of catabolic reactions into pyruvic acid. Each glucose molecule that is converted into a pyruvic acid molecule yields 2 molecules of ATP. What phase is this? anaerobic phase
In the presence of oxygen, glucose is completely broken down into carbon dioxide and water. These reactions generate heat and 36 to 38 ATP molecules. Which phase is this? aerobic phase
Created by: jconsalo