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Position Ch 20,21,22

Skull - Facial - Sinuses

QuestionAnswer
In a typically shaped head, the petrous pyramids project anteriorly and medially at what angle? 47 degrees
The six areas of incomplete ossification in a newborn infant's skull are called the: fontanels
The posterior half of the base of the skull is formed by which bone? occipital
The suture located between the occipital bone and the parietal bones is the: lambdoidal
Which of the following is NOT one of the bones of the cranium? Maxillae
The CR and center of the IR position for a lateral projection of the skull is: 2 inches above the EAM
Which method of demonstrating the mastoid process is particularly useful with children and adults who cannot be placed in the prone position? Arcelin
What is the CR angulation for the Townes method of demonstrating the occipital bone? 30 degrees caudad
The cranial vault is composed of ____ plates of compact tissue. 2
True or False: The skull rests upon the inferior aspect of the vertebral column. False
The cranial bones are divided into the: Calvaria & Floor
True or False: The sagittal suture is located on top of the head between the two parietal bones and just behind the coronal suture line. True
Which of the following bones are contained in the calvarium? Frontal & Parietal
The suture located between the occipital bone and the parietal bones is the: Lambdoidal
How many bones make up the cranium? 8
Which skull type is narrow from side to side? dolicocephalic
Which bone in the skull contains the auditory organs and the organs of hearing? temporal
Which skull suture is located between the parietal bones? sagittal
Which bone has condyles that articulate with the atlas of the cervical spine? Occipital
The cranial bones are rigidly jointed together by articulations called: sutures
Which of the following skull types is considered average in size and shape? Mesocephalic
The superior aspect of the sphenoid bone presents a deep depression called: sella turcica
The posterior half of the base of the skull is formed by which bone? Occipital
The six areas of incomplete ossification in a newborn infant's skull are called the: fontanels
Which skull suture is found between the frontal and parietal bones? Coronal
In a typically shaped head, the petrous pyramids project anteriorly and medially at what angle? 47 degrees
The ear is divided into 3 main divisions, which one of the following is not one of the main divisions? Tympanic ear
Which cranial bone has the mastoid process? Temporal
Which of the following foramina lie in the sphenoid bone? Optic foramen & Foramina Rotundum
The superior aspect of the sphenoid bone contains a deep depression that contains the: pituitary gland
Which one of the following is not one of the bones of the cranium? maxillae
Which of the following bones is contained in the floor of the cranium? Ethmoid, Sphenoid & Temporal
The CR and center of the IR position for a lateral projection of the skull is: 2 inches above the EAM
Which line should be placed perpendicular to the plane of the IR for the lateral projection of the cranial base? interpupillary line
Which of the following is true regarding the lateral projection of the skull? *The midsagittal plane of the head is parallel to the plane of the IR *The interpupillary line is perpendicular to the IR
Which of the following should be seen superimposed on a lateral projection of the skull? *Orbital roofs *External Acoustic Meati *Temporomandibular Joints
Which projection of the skull can be correctly performed with the central ray angled 37 degrees? AP axial, Townes Method
Which of the following is true regarding the placement of the IR for a Towne projection of the skull? *Its upper margin is at the level of the top of the cranium
If the patient cannot flex the neck to place the OML perpendicular to the IR for a Towne projection, which line should be placed perpendicular? IOML
Which of the following are demonstrated on an AP axial Towne Method projection of the skull? *Petrous pyramids *Occipital bone *Posterior portion of the foramen magnum
What is the CR angulation for demonstration of the entire foramen magnum during a Towne projection? 40 - 60 degrees caudad
Which of the following is clearly demonstrated within the foramen magnum during an AP axial Towne projection of the skull? *Dorsum Sellae *Posterior Clinoid Processes
Radiographic demonstration of the cranial base is performed by which method? Schuller
The CR angle for the PA axial Caldwell projection of the skull is: 15 degrees caudad
Which parts of the patient's face touch the table for a PA axial projection, Caldwell Method? Forehead & Nose
Often, a patient cannot be turned into the prone position for a PA axial projection of the skull, Caldwell Method. What CR angle could be used if the AP axial projection is used instead? 15 degrees cephalad
Which of the following is perpendicular to the plane of the IR for a Caldwell projection of the skull? OML
Which projection of the skull can be correctly performed with the central ray angled 15 degrees? PA axial, Caldwell method
Which projection of the skull projects the petrous bones in the lower third of the orbits? PA axial, Caldwell method
For an SMV projection of the cranial base, the CR should always be perpendicular to the: IOML
Which line should be placed parallel to the plane of the IR for the SMV projection of the cranial base? IOML
Which line is placed at a 53 degree angle to the plane of the IR for the parieto-orbital oblique (Rhese) projection of the optic canal? Midsagittal plane
How many degrees is the head rotated for the parieto-orbital Rhese projection of the optic canal? 53 degrees
The CR angulation for the Rhese projection of the orbits is: 0 degrees
Which line is placed perpendicular to the IR for the parieto-orbital oblique Rhese projection of the optic canal? Acanthiomeatal line
What is the CR angulation for the SMV projection? 0 degrees
How many degrees is the face rotated from the lateral position for the Stenvers method of demonstrating the mastoid process? 45 degrees
Which method of demonstrating the mastoid process is particularly useful with children and adults who cannot be placed in the prone position? Arcelin
How much is the face rotated from the lateral position for the axiolateral projection, Modified Law method, of the mastoid process? 15 degrees
Where does the CR enter the skull for the Modified Law method of demonstrating the mastoid process? 2 inches posterior and 2 inches superior to the EAM
What is the CR angulation for the Stenvers method of demonstrating the mastoid process? 12 degrees cephalad
Which methods of examining the mastoid process will place the petrous ridge parallel with the plane of the IR? *Arcelin *Stenvers
How much is the head rotated for the axiolateral oblique projection, Arcelin method, of demonstrating the mastoid process? 45 degrees
What is the CR angulation for the Modified Law method of demonstrating the mastoid process? 15 degrees caudad
Which of the following is not one of the essential projection methods of demonstrating the mastoid process? Mayer
What are the 3 essential projection methods of demonstrating the mastoid process? *Arcelin *Stenvers *Modified Law
Visualization of the sharp outlines of the thin, fragile walls of the mastoid cells requires all of the following except: the effective focal spot must be larger than 10 mm
This bone forms the prominence of the cheeks. Zygomatic Bones
The smallest of the facial bones is: Lacrimal
How many facial bones help make up the bony orbit? 4
The largest of the facial bones: Mandible
The total number of facial bones: 14
For a lateral projection of the facial bones, the IR is centered to the: Zygomatic bone
True or False: For the Waters method, the orbitomeatal line is placed at a 27 degree angle to the IR. False - the OML is placed at a 37 degree angle to the IR
This line is placed as nearly parallel to the IR as possible for the SMV projection of the Zygomatic arches. IOML
The ______ is centered to the IR for a parietoacanthial projection of the facial bones. Acanthion
For the tangential projection of the zygomatic arch, the patient's head is tilted approx.: 15 degrees away from the side being examined
The axiolateral projection of the TMJs requires a CR angle of: 25 or 30 degrees
The axiolateral oblique projection of the TMJs requires the midsagittal plane of the head to be rotated ___________ the IR. 15 degrees toward
Which of the following projections will clearly demonstrate any medial or lateral displacement of fractures of the mandibular rami? *PA *PA axial
What is the CR angulation for the PA projection of the mandibular rami? 0 degrees
The axiolateral oblique projection is used to demonstrate the mandible. How is the head positioned to demonstrate the body of the mandible? 30 degrees toward the IR
Which of the following is centered to the IR for the PA projection of the mandibular rami? tip of the nose
Which of the following projections best demonstrates the condyle and neck of the mandible? AP axial
Which reference line is perpendicular to the IR for the PA and PA axial mandibular rami? OML
There are several methods of performing the axiolateral oblique projection of the mandible to demonstrate the symphysis, body, or ramus. What is the CR angulation for all of these projections? 25 degrees cephalad
The axiolateral oblique projection is used to demonstrate the mandible. How is the head positioned to demonstrate the ramus of the mandible? True lateral
What is the CR angulation for the PA axial projection of the mandibular rami? 20 to 25 degrees cephalad
The axiolateral oblique projection is used to demonstrate the mandible. How is the head positioned to demonstrate the symphysis of the mandible? 45 degrees toward the IR
Which of the following lines is placed as nearly parallel to the IR as possible for the SMV projection of the zygomatic arches? IOML
For the tangential projection of the zygomatic arch, the head is positioned so the midsagittal plane is: 15 degrees toward the side being examined
Both zygomatic arches can be demonstrated on one projection for which of the following projections: *SMV *AP axial
For the tangential projection of the zygomatic arch, the top of the head is tilted how many degrees? 15 degrees away from the side examined
For the SMV projection of the zygomatic arches, the CR is directed perpendicular to the: IOML
At which level will the CR be placed for the tangential projection of the zygomatic arch? level of the outer canthi
What is the CR angulation for the AP axial projection of the zygomatic arches? 30 degrees caudad
Where is the IR centered for the AP axial projection of the zygomatic arches? Mandibular condyles
The Reverse Waters method demonstrates the _______ facial bones. superior
The CR angulation for the Reverse Waters method is: 0 degrees
The parietoacanthial projection, Waters method, of the facial bones is often modified so there is less angulation of the facial bones. For this modification, the OML is adjusted to: 55 degrees
Which facial bones are clearly demonstrated on the parietoacanthial projection, Waters method? *Orbits *Maxillae *Zygomatic arches
Which of the following is placed perpendicular to the IR for the acanthoparietal projection, Reverse Waters method, of the facial bones? MML
Which part of the patient's face is touching the upright Bucky, or table, for a parietoacanthial projection, Waters method? Chin
The parietoacanthial projection of the facial bones is commonly called the: Waters method
To visualize the facial bones on a parietoacanthial Waters projection, the __________ must be removed from the facial bone area of interest. petrous pyramids
Which of the following is centered to the IR for a parietoacanthial projection of the facial bones? Acanthion
Trauma patients may arrive in the radiology department with their head immobilized. A Reverse Waters method can always be performed on these patients by adjusting the CR parallel to the: MML
For the Waters method, the OML is placed at what angle to the IR? 37 degrees
For a lateral projection of the facial bones, the IR is centered to the: zygomatic bone
Which of the following is placed parallel to the transverse axis of the IR for a lateral projection of the facial bones? IOML
The lateral projection of the facial bones clearly demonstrates: all facial bones in their entirety
For a lateral projection of the facial bones, the CR will enter: halfway between the outer canthus and the EAM
Which of the following is true regarding the lateral projection of the facial bones? *The IR is placed lengthwise in the bucky *The interpupillary line is perpendicular to the tabletop
The structures shown on a lateral nasal bones must include the nasal bone with soft tissue nasal structures and the _________________. Frontonasal suture
Where is the CR centered for a lateral projection of the nasal bones? 1/2 inch distal to the nasion
Which of the following is required evaluation criteria regarding the PA axial projection, Caldwell method? *Symmetric petrous ridges *The midsagittal plane is perpendicular to the tabletop
The most anterior and central part of the mandible is called: Symphysis
A small, u-shaped structure situated at the base of the tongue. Hyoid bone
The majority of the hard palate is formed by: Maxilla
The respiration phase for all facial bones projections is: Suspend
How many facial bones help make up the bony orbit? 4
True or False: The Palantine bones are composed of the vertical and horizontal plates that articulate with the maxillae to complete the posterior portion of the bony palate (roof of the mouth). True
This bone forms the inferior part of the nasal septum vomer
How many skull bones help make up the bony orbit? 3
These bones form the bridge of the nose Nasal
This bone contains a tear duct lacrimal
This bone has a scroll-like appearance. Inferior nasal conchae
True or False: One of the functions of the sinuses is to increase the weight of the skull. False
Which sinus is located in the most superior position in the skull? Frontal sinuses
The Ethmoidal sinuses are located in the _____. Cranium
True or False: Proper patient instructions before the examination will assist in radiation protection for a patient receiving sinus radiographs. True
True or False: Sinus radiographs should be made in the semi-erect position to best visualize air fluid levels. False
Which sinus is the largest? Maxillary
True or False: Proper collimation to the appropriate anatomy is one of the ways to protect the patient from unnecessary radiation during sinus radiography. True
True or False: At birth, the frontal sinuses are sufficiently developed and aerated and can be radiographed. False
Which projections will demonstrate the ethmoidal sinuses? *PA *PA axial Caldwell *SMV
When the lateral sinus projection is to be used for preoperative measurements, it should be made at _____ SID. 72 inches
The Waters method is also used to demonstrate the: Foramen Rotundum
Where are the petrous ridges seen on a parietoacanthial Waters method radiograph? inferior to the floor of the maxillary sinuses
The central ray forms an angle of how many degrees with the OML for the PA axial Caldwell projection of the sinuses? 15 degrees
Where is the IR centered for the parietoacanthial Waters method projection of the sinuses? Acanthion
Which of the following reference lines is placed perpendicular to the IR for a parietoacanthial Waters method projection? MML
For a lateral projection of the paranasal sinuses, the CR is directed: 1/2 to 1 inch posterior to the outer canthus
Which of the following should be clearly demonstrated on a lateral projection of the paranasal sinus? *All 4 sinus groups *Superimposed orbital roofs *Superimposed mandibular rami
Which reference line is positioned horizontal to ensure proper extension of the head during a lateral projection of the sinuses? IOML
Which reference line is positioned perpendicular to the angled IR for the PA axial Caldwell method projection of the sinuses? OML
Which projection will best demonstrate the frontal and anterior ethmoidal sinuses? PA axial Caldwell (only)
When using the angled grid technique for the PA axial (Caldwell method) projection of the sinuses, the vertical grid device must be angled: 15 degrees
The parietoacanthial projection Waters method of the sinuses requires the OML to be placed how many degrees from the plane of the IR? 37 degrees
Which of the following must be projected below the maxillary sinuses for the parietoacanthial projection Waters method of the sinuses? petrous pyramids
At which level should the CR enter the base of the skull for the SMV projection of the sinuses? 3/4 inch anterior to the level of the EAM
Which of the following projections will best demonstrate the maxillary sinuses? Parietoacanthial Waters Method (only)
True or False: The maxillary sinuses communicate with the middle nasal meatus at the superior aspect of the sinus. True
True or False: The SMV will best demonstrate the maxillary sinuses. False
The respiration phase for all projections of the sinuses is: Suspended
True or False: The intersinus septum separates the maxillary sinuses. False
True or False: All sinuses begin to develop during early puberty. False
The second largest sinus is the: Frontal
At what age are all of the sinuses completely developed? 17 to 18
Which sinus is located immediately below the sella turcica? Sphenoidal
True or False: The Waters Method will best demonstrate the maxillary sinuses. True
The largest sinus is the: Maxillary
Which sinus is located in the bodies of both maxilla's? Maxillary
Which sinus is located between the vertical plates of the skull? Frontal
The two ethmoidal sinuses are located within which bone? Ethmoid
Which of the sinuses is developed at birth and visible radiographically? Maxillary
Which of the following are included as functions of the sinuses? *Decrease the weight of the skull *Warm and moisten inhaled air *Provide a resonating chamber for the voice
True or False: At birth, the frontal sinuses are sufficiently developed and aerated and can be radiographed. False
True or False: Proper collimation to the appropriate anatomy is an excellent way to protect the patient from unnecessary radiation during sinus radiography. True
Which projections will demonstrate the ethmoidal sinuses? *PA *PA axial Caldwell *SMV
True or False: Sinus radiographs should be made in the prone position to best visualize air fluid levels. False
Patients who are having an examination of the paranasal sinuses should always be examined in the upright position to: *Demonstrate the presence or absence of fluid *Differentiate between fluid and other pathological conditions
The most effective way to protect the patient from unnecessary radiation during sinus radiography is to use: Proper collimation (only)
This technical consideration is probably more critical and misleading in sinus radiography. Density
Created by: foster1317