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Salters Atm

Salters Atmosphere units

What is the effect of Infra Red radiation on a molecule? BONDS vibrate MORE
What is the effect of UltraViolet Radiation? BONDS split homolytically
What is the order of frequency for UV radiation? 10^14 to 10^15 Hz
What is the order of energy in a single bond? 10^-19 J
A bond energy for O-O in Ozone is 302kJ.mol-1. What is the minimum frequency needed to break this bond? 7.6x10^14Hz
Describe the steps necessary to work out the minimum frequency needed to break a bond, given the bond enthalpy. CONVERT the bond enthalpy from kJ.mole-1 into J.mol-1 (times by 1000); work out energy PER SINGLE bond (divide by Avogadro); work out frequency using E=hf (ie divide by Planck)
Describe in detail the effect of increased concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere? C=O BONDS absorb IR energy; so the bonds vibrate MORE; the kinetic energy is passed on to colliding molecules; increased concentration of CO2 means more IR absorbed and ...more kinetic energy passed on; overall effect is warming up of the atmosphere
Explain why CFC are not split until the Stratosphere, but not in the troposphere the UV radiation in the troposphere has not got a frequency HIGH enough to split the bonds
Explain why CFC are damaging the Ozone layer but Bromo compounds are not C-Br BOND is weaker/lower bond enthalpy so can broken by low energy radiation/low frequency UV which exists in the troposphere; C-Cl and C-F BONDS require high energy UV which is only found in the stratosphere
Describe why CFC are damaging the ozone layer In the stratosphere, C-Cl BONDS absorb HIGH ENERGY UV radiation; the BOND splits homolytically to form Cl radicals; Cl radicals combine with Ozone to form Oxygen MOLECULE and oxygen RADICAL; O* combines wi; Cl* are regenerated=act as catalyst
Define propagation step When a radical reacts with a molecule forms a different radical
Define Termination step When two radical combine together to form a molecule
Define a radical A species (atom or molecule) with an unpaired electron
Which bond has the highest bond enthalpy? C-Br or C-Cl? C-Cl
Write the equation to show the homolytic fission of BromoTriChloroMethane F3C-Br --> F3C* + *Br Show ALL bonds; the bond that breaks first here is the C-Br as it is the weakest
What TYPE of particles are formed by heterolytic fission? ions
What TYPE of particles are formed by homolytic fission? radicals
State uses of CFCs and explain the uses by referring to their property solvent, refrigerant because they have low boiling point
Why is SiO2 a solid but CO2 is a gas? Both have covalent bonds; SiO2 is a GIANT structure where each Si is linked to 4 Oxygens; CO2 is a SIMPLE molecule where each C is linked to 2 Oxygens
Why is theis not a true equilibrium? Products can escape; not a closed system
Created by: UrsulineChem