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Anatomy 1

Back Muscles

NameFunctionOrigin and InsertionInnervationLayerLocation
Trapezius Upper area elevates scapula, Lower area depresses and lowers shoulder, entire muscle retracts scapula ORIGIN: Occiput, nuchal ligament, C7 - T12 SP's. INSERTION: clavicle, acromion, and spine of scapula spinal accessory n, C3 - C4 Spinal n Layer 1 Covers upper back; attaches upper limb to trunk
Latissimus dorsi Extends, adducts, and medially rotates arm; raises bodytoward arms during climbing stairs Origin: T6 - T12 sp, Thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crest, lower 3-4 ribs. Insertion: Humerus thoracodorsal nerve Layer 1 fan-shaped muscle on lower back
Levator scapula elevates scapula ORIGIN: C1 - C4 transverse processes, INSERTION: medial border (superior angle) of scapula dorsal scapular and cervical nerves Layer 2 (extrinsic muscles) (blank)
Rhomboid minor retract scapula, rorate scapula, fix scapula to thoracic wall ORIGIN: Nuchal ligament, C7 - T1 Spinous processes; INSERTION: medial end of spine of scapula dorsal scapular nerve Layer 2 (extrinsic muscles) (blank)
Rhomboid major retract scapula, rorate scapula, fix scapula to thoracic wall ORIGIN: T2 - T5 spinous processes, INSERTION: medial border of scapula inferior to scapular spine dorsal scapular nerve Layer 2 (extrinsic muscles) (blank)
Serratus posterior superior elevate ribs, move ribs ORIGIN: nuchal ligament and C7 - T3 spinous processes; INSERTION: ribs 2-4 intercostal nerves Layer 3 (extrinsic muscles) (blank)
Serratus posterior inferior depress ribs ORIGIN: T11 - L2 spinous processes, INSERTION: ribs 8 -12 intercostal nerves Layer 3 (extrinsic muscles) (blank)
Splenius capitis rotate face towards side of active muscles and laterally flex neck, w/ splenius cervicis = extend head and neck ORIGIN: nuchal ligament & C7-T6, INSERTION: mastoid process and lateral end of the superior nuchal line dorsal primary rami of spinal nerves C2-C6 Layer 4 (intrinsic muscles) (blank)
Splenius cervicis extends and laterally bends neck and head, rotates head to the same side ORIGIN: nuchal ligament, s.p.'s of C7 - T3; INSERTION: dorsal rami of spinal nerve layer 4 (intrinsic muscle) (blank)
Iliocostalis cervicis BILATERALLY: extend spine and head; UNILATERALLY :flex spine ORIGIN: Posterior iliac crest and sacrum; sp's of lumbar vertebra; INSERTION: Lower ribs and Cervical transverse processes dorsal primary rami of spinal nerves C4-S5 Layer 5: erector spinae (blank)
Iliocostalis lumborum BILATERALLY: extend spine and head; UNILATERALLY :flex spine ORIGIN: Posterior iliac crest and sacrum; sp's of lumbar vertebra; INSERTION: Lower ribs and Cervical transverse processes dorsal primary rami of spinal nerves C4-S5 Layer 5: erector spinae (blank)
Iliocostalis thoracis BILATERALLY: extend spine and head; UNILATERALLY :flex spine ORIGIN: Posterior iliac crest and sacrum; sp's of lumbar vertebra; INSERTION: Lower ribs and Cervical transverse processes dorsal primary rami of spinal nerves C4-S5 Layer 5: erector spinae (blank)
Longissimus Capitis BILATERALLY: extend spine and head; UNILATERALLY :flex spine ORIGIN: Posterior iliac crest and sacrum; sp's of lumbar vertebra; INSERTION: ribs, Thoracic and Cervical transverse processes, and occiput dorsal primary rami of spinal nerves C1-S1 Layer 5: erector spinae (blank)
Longissimus thoracis BILATERALLY: extend spine and head; UNILATERALLY :flex spine ORIGIN: Posterior iliac crest and sacrum; sp's of lumbar vertebra; INSERTION: ribs, Thoracic and Cervical transverse processes, and occiput dorsal primary rami of spinal nerves C1-S1 Layer 5: erector spinae (blank)
Longissimus cervicis BILATERALLY: extend spine and head; UNILATERALLY :flex spine ORIGIN: Posterior iliac crest and sacrum; sp's of lumbar vertebra; INSERTION: ribs, Thoracic and Cervical transverse processes, and occiput dorsal primary rami of spinal nerves C1-S1 Layer 5: erector spinae (blank)
Spinalis Thoracis BILATERALLY: extend spine and head; UNILATERALLY :flex spine ORIGIN: Posterior iliac crest and sacrum; sp's of lumbar vertebra; INSERTION: Thoracic spinous processes and occiput dorsal primary rami of spinal nerves C2-L3 Layer 5: erector spinae (blank)
Spinalis cervicis BILATERALLY: extend spine and head; UNILATERALLY :flex spine ORIGIN: Posterior iliac crest and sacrum; sp's of lumbar vertebra; INSERTION: Thoracic spinous processes and occiput dorsal primary rami of spinal nerves C2-L3 Layer 5: erector spinae (blank)
Spinalis capitis BILATERALLY: extend spine and head; UNILATERALLY :flex spine ORIGIN: Posterior iliac crest and sacrum; sp's of lumbar vertebra; INSERTION: Thoracic spinous processes and occiput dorsal primary rami of spinal nerves C2-L3 Layer 5: erector spinae (blank)
Semispinalis thoracis extends and rotates spine away ORIGIN: transverse processes of C7-T12; INSERTION: sp's of thoracic and cervical vertebra, capitis dorsal primary rami of spinal nerves C1-T12 layer 6, Transverso-spinalis spans 4-6 segments
Semispinalis cervicis extends and rotates spine away ORIGIN: transverse processes of C7-T12; INSERTION: sp's of thoracic and cervical vertebra, capitis dorsal primary rami of spinal nerves C1-T12 layer 6, Transverso-spinalis spans 4-6 segments
Semispinalis capitis extends and rotates spine away ORIGIN: transverse processes of C7-T12; INSERTION: sp's of thoracic and cervical vertebra, capitis dorsal primary rami of spinal nerves C1-T12 layer 6, Transverso-spinalis spans 4-6 segments
Multifidus Lumbar extend, laterally flex, and rotate ORIGIN: sacrum, transverse processes of C3-L5, INSERTION: spinous processes 2-4 vertebral levels superior to their origin dorsal primary rami of spinal nerves C1-L5 layer 6, Transverso-spinalis spans 2-4 segments, thickest in lumbar region
Multifidus thoracis extend, laterally flex, and rotate ORIGIN: sacrum, transverse processes of C3-L5, INSERTION: spinous processes 2-4 vertebral levels superior to their origin dorsal primary rami of spinal nerves C1-L5 layer 6, Transverso-spinalis spans 2-4 segments, thickest in lumbar region
Multifidus cervicis extend, laterally flex, and rotate ORIGIN: sacrum, transverse processes of C3-L5, INSERTION: spinous processes 2-4 vertebral levels superior to their origin dorsal primary rami of spinal nerves C1-L5 layer 6, Transverso-spinalis spans 2-4 segments, thickest in lumbar region
Rotatores extend and rotate ORIGIN: transverse processes; INSERTION: long rotatores: spines 2 vertebrae above origin; short rotatores: spines 1 vertebrae above origin dorsal primary rami of spinal nerves C1-L5 layer 6, Transverso-spinalis thoracic region best development
Rotatores extend and rotate ORIGIN: transverse processes; INSERTION: long rotatores: spines 2 vertebrae above origin; short rotatores: spines 1 vertebrae above origin dorsal primary rami of spinal nerves C1-L5 layer 6, Transverso-spinalis thoracic region best development
Rotatores extend and rotate ORIGIN: transverse processes; INSERTION: long rotatores: spines 2 vertebrae above origin; short rotatores: spines 1 vertebrae above origin dorsal primary rami of spinal nerves C1-L5 layer 6, Transverso-spinalis thoracic region best development
Interspinales cervicis extend ORIGIN: upper border of spinous process; INSERTION: angles of the ribs dorsal primary rami of spinal nerves C1-L5 Deep muscle (blank)
Interspinales lumborum extend ORIGIN: upper border of spinous process; INSERTION: angles of the ribs dorsal primary rami of spinal nerves C1-L5 Deep muscle (blank)
Intertransversarii lateralus lumborum laterally flex ORIGIN: upper border of transverse process; INSERTION: lower border of transverse process above dorsal primary rami of spinal nerves C1-L5 Deep muscle (blank)
intertransversarii medialis lumborum laterally flex ORIGIN: upper border of transverse process; INSERTION: lower border of transverse process above dorsal primary rami of spinal nerves C1-L5 Deep muscle (blank)
levatores costarum longi elevate ribs (blank) (blank) Deep m (blank)
Levatores costarum brevis elevate ribs (blank) (blank) Deep muscle (blank)
rectus capitis posterior major extend and rotate head ORIGIN: C2 spinous process; INSERTION: occiput suboccipital nerve (DPR of C1) Suboccipital muscle, triangle: supermedial boundary (blank)
rectus capitis posterior minor extend and rotate head ORIGIN: C1 posterior tubercule, INSERTION: occiput suboccipital nerve (DPR of C1) suboccipital muscle (blank)
obliquus capitis superior extend and rotate head ORIGIN: C1 transverse process; INSERTION: occiput suboccipital nerve (DPR of C1) suboccipital muscle & triangle (blank)
obliquus capitis inferior extend and rotate head ORIGIN: C2 spinous process; INSERTION: C1 transverse process suboccipital nerve (DPR of C1) suboccipital muscle & triangle (blank)
`teres major adducts, medially rotates, and extends arm at shoulder ORIGIN: lower lateral border and inferior angle of scapula; INSERTION: medial lip of intertubercule groove of angerior humerus Lower subscapular nerve (C5, C6) (blank) (blank)
Created by: geraptiko
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