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# Statistics Exam 1

The condition of a probability density curve to have fatter tails and a higher peak at the mean than the normal leptokurtosis
flatter ("plat" "flat") than a normal distribution Platykurtosis
Statistical procedures used to summarize, organize, and simplify data. (graphs, tables, average) Descriptive statistics
Techniques that allow us to study samples that make generalizations about the populations from the which they were selected. Inferential Statistics
the naturally occurring discrepancy or error, that exists between a sample statistic and the corresponding population parameter. Sample error
Two different variables are observed to determine whether there is a relationship between them. Correlational method
internal attribute or characteristics that cannot be directly observed but are useful for describing and explaining behavior. (intelligence, anxiety, hunger) Constructs
a measurement procedure for measuring an external behavior and uses the resulting measurements as a definition and a measurement of a hypothetical construct. Operational definition
consist of separate, indivisible categories. Whole numbers or qualities Discrete variables
divisible into an infinite number of fractional parts. Continuous variable
boundaries located exactly halfway between adjacent categories. Real limits
an unordered set of categories identified only by name. only permit you to determine whether two individuals are the same or different. Nominal scale
an ordered set of categories. tell you the direction of difference between two individuals Ordinal scale
an ordered series of equal-sized categories. identify the direction and magnitude of a difference. The zero point is located arbitrarily . interval scale
an interval scale where a value of zero indicates none of the variable. identify the direction and magnitude of differences and allow comparisons of measurements. ratio scale
do not use a manipulated variable to differentiate the groups, but a usually pre-existing participant variable (male/female) or a time variable (before/after). Cant demonstrate cause and effect, but correlations. Non- or quasi- experimental studies
organized tabulation showing how many individuals are located in each category on the scale of measurement. presents an organized picture of the entire set of scores, and it shows where each individual is located relative to the others frequency distribution
When a frequency distribution table lists all of the individual categories (X values) regular frequency distribution
Used when there is too many values so a list would be too long. the X column lists groups of scores, called class intervals which all have the same width, usually a simple number. Grouped frequency distribution
a graph in which a bar is centered above each score (or class interval) so that the height of the bar corresponds to the frequency and the width extends to the real limits, so that adjacent bars touch. histogram
a graph in which a dot is centered above each score so that the height of the dot corresponds to the frequency. The dots are then connected by straight lines. An additional line is drawn at each end to bring the graph back to a zero frequency. polygon
Used for nominal or ordinal scales. Similar to histograms but with spaces between bars. Bar graph
Used when population is too large for exact numbers of each category to be known. Relative frequency
When population measured on interval or ratio scale. emphasizes that exact frequency not shown. Smooth curve
When scores or percentages do not correspond to upper real limits or cumulative percentages, determines the corresponding ranks and percentiles Interpolation
describes the center of the distribution and represents the entire distribution of scores. identify the single value that is the best representative for the entire set of data. Mean, median, and mode central tendency
obtain a measure of how spread out the scores are in a distribution variability
Created by: 1101302570