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Urinary System

Chapter 18 Anatomy & Physiology

The process of eliminating wastes from the body Excretion
located in a concave notch in the medial side of the kidneys Hilum
Structures enter and leave the kidney through a slit called Hilum
A tough ________ surrounds each kidney Fibrous Capsule
The Site of urine production Renal Cortex
Forms the outer region of the kidneys Renal Cortex
The site of urine collection Renal Medulla
Forms the inner region of the kidneys Renal Medulla
Extensions from the cortex that divide the interior region into cone-shaped sections Renal Columns
the cone-shaped sections in the kidney Renal Pyramids
Consist of tubules for transporting urine away for the cortex Renal Pyramids
The base of each __________ faces outward toward the cortex Renal Pyramids
The point of the Renal Pyramid is called Renal Papilla
Faces the hilum in the kidneys Renal Papilla
Renal papilla extends into a cup called Minor Calyx
Collects urine leaving the papilla Minor Calyx
Two or Three minor calyces join together to form a Major Calyx
the major calyces converge to form the Renal Pelvis
Receives urine from the major calyces Renal Pelvis
the renal pelvis continues as the Ureter
A tube-like structure that channels urine to the urinary bladder Ureter
Branches off the abdominal aorta Renal Artery
Brings blood to the kidneys Renal Artery
Blood eventually leaves the kidney through the Renal Vein
The filtration units of the kidney Nephrons
lie in the kidney's outer region, where they extend the cortex and medulla. Nephrons
Supplies blood to one nephron Afferent Arterioles
Each afferent arterioles branches into a cluster of capillaries called Glomerulus
enclosed by the bowmen's capsule Glomerulus
Surrounds the Glomerulus Bowmen's Capsule
Blood leaves the glomerulus though Efferent Arterioles
the efferent arterioles leads to a network of capillaries around the renal tubules called Peritubular Capillaries
these pick up water and solutes reabsorbed by the renal tubules Peritubular Capillaries
Known as the beginning of the nephron Renal Corpuscle
Consists of the glomerulus and the Bowmen's capsule Renal Corpuscle
Also known as the Glomerulus Capsule Bowmen's Capsule
Consists of two layers of epithelial cells that envelope the glomerulus in an open-ended covering Bowmen's Capsule
Leading away from the glomerulus are a series of tube-like structures that collectively are called Renal Tubule
After returning to the cortex, the ascending limb coils again, forming the Distal Tubule
Arising from directly from the Bowmen's capsule Proximal Tubule
Consists of a descending limb and ascending limb Loop of Henle
Receives drainage from the distal tubules of several different nephrons Collecting duct
Passes into a renal pyramid, where it merges with other ducts to form one __________ Collecting duct
The amount of fluid filtered by both kidneys Glomerular Filtration Rate
equals 180 liters each day Glomerular Filtration Rate
the presence of finding protein in the urine Proteinuria
A key mechanism for maintaining blood pressure and, therefore, a steady glomerular filtration rate Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system
Specialized cells in the afferent arterioles Juxtaglomerular Cells
Renin coverts the inactive plasma protein _________ (made in the liver) into Angiotensin I Angiotensinogen
Angiotensin I circulates to the lungs, where __________ (ACE) converts into Angiotensin II Angiotensin-converting Enzyme
Angiotensin II stimulates the adrenal glands to secrete Aldosterone
Process whereby chemicals are removed from filtrate in the renal tubules and returned to the blood Tubular Reabsorption
Process whereby chemicals are added to the filtrate in the renal tubules Tubular Secretion
Passage of large amounts of urine Diuresis
Increase reabsorption of Na+ and excretion of K+, Increase Blood pressure Aldosterone
Increase reabsorption of H2O, Increase Blood Pressure Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
Decrease reabsorption of Na+, Decreases Blood Pressure Atrial Natriuretic peptide (ANP)
an examination of the characteristics of urine Urinalysis
A high Ph Reflects Alkalosis
A low ph indicates Acidosis
A urine output of less then 400 ml/day Oliguria
Urines yellow color results from pigment _________ Urochrome
A byproduct of the breakdown of hemoglobin in worn-out red blood cells Urochrome
Connecting the renal pelvis of each kidney with the bladder are slender, muscular tubes called Ureters
A collapsible muscular sac that sits behind the symphysis pubis and s below the peritoneal membrane Urinary Bladder
In Women, this resides in front of the vagina and uterus Urinary Bladder
In Men, this Resides on top of the prostate gland Urinary Bladder
The Wall of the Bladder Detrusor Muscle
Folds in the bladder Rugae
Triangular-shaped, smooth area on the floor of the bladder Trigone
infections commonly attack this area of the bladder Trigone
At the point where the urethra leaves the bladder , a ring of smooth muscle forms the Internal Urethral Sphincter
this Sphincter contracts involuntarily to retain urine in the bladder Internal Urethral Sphincter
exists where the urethra passes through the pelvic floor External Urinary Sphincter
this sphincter consists of skeletal muscle and is under voluntary control External Urinary Sphincter
A small tube that conveys urine away from the bladder and out of the body Urethra
the opening of the urethra leading to the outside of the body External Urinary Meatus
Females are particularly prone to urinary tract infections because of the bacteria called Escherichia Coli
Also called Micturition Urination
begins when the external sphincter muscle of the bladder voluntarily relaxes and the detrusor muscle of the bladder contracts Urination
Hormone that inhabits diuresis by stimulating the kidney to conserve water Antidiuretic
U-Shaped portion of the renal tubule Loop of Henle
Measurement that indicates the amount of solid matter in a liquid Specific Gravity
Enzyme released by the kidneys in response to a drop in blood pressure that causes the conversion of angiotensinogen into angiotensin I Renin
the location where blood vessels, nerves and ureter enter and leave the kidney. Hilum
The portion of the nephron in charge of making urine Renal Tubule
Most sodium is reabsorbed from the glomerular filtrate in the: Proximal Tubule
many diuretics work by blocking tubular reabsorption of: Sodium
Created by: Leci81



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