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Salters ES

Salters Elements from Sea

QuestionAnswer
Describe how id-id interaction arises Random movement of e- around a molecule; this means that at a given instant distribution of e- is uneven; this creates an instantaneous dipole; the partially negative side push the e- of a 2nd molecule; this is the induced dipole; the 2 dipoles attract
Describe how a dipole/polarised bond arises When one element is more electronegative than the other one
Define electronegativity The ability to withdraw electrons in a covalent bond
Identify the (strongest) type of IMB in CH4 id-id
Identify the (strongest) type of IMB in NH3 or H2O H-bond
Identify the (strongest) type of IMB in CH3Cl pd-pd
Identify the partial charges on a C-Cl bond; explain your choice C is partially positive and Cl partially negative because Cl is more electronegative
Describe how id-id interaction arises Random movement of e- around a molecule; this means that at a given instant distribution of e- is uneven; this creates an instantaneous dipole; the partially negative side push the e- of a 2nd molecule; this is the induced dipole; the 2 dipoles attract
Describe how a dipole/polarised bond arises When one element is more electronegative than the other one
Define electronegativity The ability to withdraw electrons in a covalent bond
Identify the (strongest) type of IMB in CH4 id-id
Identify the (strongest) type of IMB in NH3 or H2O H-bond
Describe how id-id interaction arises Random movement of e- around a molecule; this means that at a given instant distribution of e- is uneven; this creates an instantaneous dipole; the partially negative side push the e- of a 2nd molecule; this is the induced dipole; the 2 dipoles attract
Describe how a dipole/polarised bond arises When one element is more electronegative than the other one
Define electronegativity The ability to withdraw electrons in a covalent bond
Identify the (strongest) type of IMB in CH4 id-id
Identify the (strongest) type of IMB in NH3 or H2O H-bond
Identify the (strongest) type of IMB in CH3Cl pd-pd
Identify the partial charges on a C-Cl bond; explain your choice C is partially positive and Cl partially negative because Cl is more electronegative
Is this molecule polarised? Explain your choice CH3Cl Yes; the C-Cl bond is polarised and there are no other dipoles to cancel it.
Is this molecule polarised? Explain your choice CCl4 No; each C-Cl bond is polarised but the 4 dipoles cancel each other
What is the name of the interaction between water and an ion? Ion-dipole interaction
How does water surround a negative ion? The water molecules arrange themselves so that the partially positive Hydrogen atoms face the negative ion
How does water surround a positive ion? The water molecules arrange themselves so that the partially negative Oxygen atoms face the positive ion
What term is used to describe ions surrounded by water? hydrated
What is the ionic equation between silver nitrate and sodium chloride? Ag+(aq) + Cl-(aq) ---> AgCl(s)
What is the ionic equation between a solution of chlorine and sodium bromide? Cl2(aq) + 2Br-(aq) ---> 2Cl-(aq) +Br2(aq)
Explain why there is a reaction between NaBr and Cl2 but there is no reaction between NaCl and Br2 Cl2 is a stronger OXIDISING AGENT so it will oxidise easily Br-; Br2 is a weaker oxidising agent so it can not oxidise Cl-
Write the half-equation for the oxidation of bromide 2Br-(aq) ---> Br2(aq) + 2e-
Is this half-equation an oxidation or a reduction? Explain why. Fe+3 + e- ---> Fe+2 It is a reduction because electrons are GAINED
What is the colour of Br2(aq)? brown
What is the colour of I2(s)? grey solid
What is the colour of I2(aq)? brown solution
What is the colour of I2(g)? purple vapours
What is the colour of KI(aq)? colourless solution
What is the colour of I2 in Hexane? purple
What is the colour of a precipitate of Silver Iodide? yellow
What are Halogens more soluble in? Water or Hexane Hexane
What is the oxidation number of Oxygen in O2? 0 (zero)
What is the oxidation number of Oxygen in H2O? -2
What is the oxidation number of Sodium in NaClO3? +1
What is the oxidation number of Chlorine in NaClO3? +5
Define an oxidation reaction When the oxidation state of an element increases
What is the systematic name of FeCl3? iron (III) Chloride (remember the oxidation state!!!!)
You want to make Propan-1ol from BromoPropane. What reagents and conditions? Concentrated Sodium Hydroxide; heat under reflux; ethanol solvent
You have made Propan-1ol from BromoPropane and concentrated Sodium Hydroxide. What are the impurities? unreacted Sodium Hydroxide; unreacted Bromopropane; Water
After a distillation, a students uses anhydrous Magnesium Sulfate. What is the purpose? Removal of water impurities
You have made Propan-1ol from BromoPropane and concentrated Sodium Hydroxide. What is the purpose of a distillation? To separate Bromopropane from Propanol
You have made Propan-1ol from BromoPropane and concentrated Sodium Hydroxide. How would you test if the product is pure? As the product is liquid, you should test its boiling point: the bp will be sharp (ie a single temperature, rather than boil over a range) and it should be the same as in a databook
Define a Nucleophile A chemical with a lone pair able to form a covalent bond with an atom deficient in electron (ie with a delta+)
Define substitution When an atom on a Carbon chain is replaced by another one
What should you be careful about when drawing curly arrows? Start the arrow in the middle of the lone pair and end it ON the Carbon with delta+
Describe the steps to write the mechanism for a Nucleophilic Substitution 1) show the lone pairs and the bond polarities 2)attack from lone pair to the C-delta+ 3) polarised bond folds 4)rewrite everything showing the new bond AND CHECK CHARGES!
A student titrates 25cm3 of sulfuric acid of unknown concentration with a solution of 0.1mole.dm-3 Sodium Hydroxide. The titre is 22.3cm3. What is the unknown concentration?
Describe the steps to answer a question on titration. write the triangles at the START of the exam; CONVERT titre from cm3 into dm3; work out moles of known; use ratio to work out out the moles of unknown; use the volume of unknown to work out the concentration
Write a balanced equation for the neutralisation of Sulfuric Acid with Sodium Hydroxide. H2SO4 + 2 NaOH --> 2 H2O + Na2(SO4)
Describe the (main) steps in a titration Place known in burette; PIPETTE 25c3 of unknown and place in conical flask; add INDICATOR; open tap; go drop by drop near the end point; when colour of indicator changes, stop and record volume; do a rough first and then repeat until CONCORDANT results
What is the TYPE of reaction between Bromobutane and Sodium Hydroxide? Nucleophilic Substitution (accept hydrolysis)
What the products of reaction between Bromobutane and Sodium Hydroxide? Butanol and Sodium Bromide
Which of the following HalogenoAlkanes is most easily hydrolysed? Explain your answer: Bromobutane or ChloroButane? Bromobutane because the C-Br bond is the weakest/lowest bond enthalpy
How would you test that Iodobutane hydrolyses before ChloroButane? Add silver Nitrate; a yellow precipitate will form before a white precipitate
Name 6 ypical nucleophiles NH3 (Ammonia); Water; Hydroxide ions (coming from Sodium Hydroxide) and Cyanide ions (coming from Sodium Cyanide); ethoxide ion and ethanoate ions
What is a Carbocation? Carbocation is the species that has a positive Carbon ion
What must you remember when a Nucleophilic Substitution takes place between Ammonia (or warter) and a HalogenoAlkane? H+ is eliminated
What are the conditions and reagents to make a BromoAlkane from an Alcohol? Concentrated HBr under reflux
What is the TYPE of product of the reaction between Ammonia and a bromobutane? Amine
Created by: UrsulineChem