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Chemistry

Handout 1/ Sequence 4 Week 1

Chem Question Seq 4 Wk 1Chem Answer Seq 4 Wk 1
Atoms Made up of smaller particles called Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons
Protons have what charge Positive
What are protons Positive charged particles
What are neutrons No charge particles
What are electrons Negavive charge particles
What are two types of bonding between atoms 1. Ionic 2. Covalent
Which bond is stronger - the Ionic or the Covalent The covalent
What are the two distinct areas of study in chemistry 1. Inorganic 2. Organic
What is Inorganic Chemistry The study of all types of molecules that do not contain carbon atoms
What is Organic Chemistry The study of substances that contain carbon as one of the components of a molecule
What are enzymes Proteins that can regulate the speed of reactions
What are catalysts Protein molecules that speed up reactions by lowering the amount of energy needed to complete the reactions
Density The ratio of mass to volume
Electron Negatively charged particles considered a fundamental unit of matter that exhist independently or outside the neucleus
Element Any of the substances, numbering 107, that cannot be chemically seperated into smaller substances
Mixture The product of mixing two or more items or substances together
Molecule A single atom or several atoms bound together electromagnetically forming the smallest particle that posses all the characteristic physical and chemical properties of an element or compound
Neutron An elementary particle having no charge. Span of 1/2 and mass approximately equal to a proton. Present in the neucleus of all atoms except the common isotope of Hydrogen.
Symbol Represents something else or that stands for complex or abstract concepts
Volume The amount of space occupied by a 3 dimentional object
Compound A substance formed by the union of 2 or more chemical elements in fixed proportions with properties different from those of its constituents
Electrolytes Substances that release ions in water
What is an acid Electrolytes that release hydrogen in water
What is a base Electrolytes that release ions that combine with hydrogen ions
The concentration of hydrogen ions in the body fluids effect the chemical reactions that control functions such as 1. Blood pressure 2. Breathing rate
Carbohydrates Provide energy that cells require and supply materials to build certain cell structures. They are often stored as reserve energy supplies
There are 3 necessary macronutrients that provide calories in our diets 1. Carbohydrates 2. Proteins 3. Fats
Carbs provide most of the energy needed in our daily lives for such functions as 1. Heart rate 2. Breathing 3. Digestion 4. Brain activity
carbs are necessary for exercises such as 1. Biking 2. Running 3. Walking
What are complex carbs Contain three or more sugars. They take longer to digest and are packed with fiber, vitamins nd minerals
What are simple carbs Contain one (single) or two (double) sugars
What are examples of simple carbs 1. Table sugar 2. Fruit juice 3. Milk 4. Yougart 5. Honey 6. Maple syrup 7. Molasses
What are examples of complex carbs 1. Vegetables 2. Whole grain breads 3. Oatmeal 4. Legumes 5. Brown rice 6. Wheat pasta
When you eat or drink a simple carb or simple sugar what happens You feel a sudden spike in blood sugar and then the pancreas will produce additional insulin to remove the excess sugar from your blood
What is the sugar craving cycle As you eat more sugars, there is a sense of needing more fuel, more energy and more calories from the downward spiral. A risidual low blood sugar craving for more of the quick-release, simple sugars
As the low blood sugar continues, what happens The pancreas continues to secret insulin while it simultaneously reduces its production of another hormone called glucagon
What is glucagon The only hormone that allows stored body fat to be released into the bloodstream to be burned by your muscles as energy
What happens when the pancreas has to elevate its production of insulin while reducing its supply of glucagon You are locking-in your excess body fat. Therefore, too much simple sugar intake dramatically hinders the process of reducing stored body fat
What are minerals called Electrolytes because they carry positive or negative electrical charges
Minerals are required for body activities such as 1. Conduction of nerve impulses 2. Beating of the heart 3. Skeletal muscle contraction 4. Absorption of neutrients from the GI tract 5. Protein synthesis 6. Energy production 7. Blood formation
Sodium and Chloride ae the principal minerals in The intracellular body fluid
Blood contains how much Sodium and Chloride 0.9%
What is the best source of sodium and chloride Table salt (NaCl)
Deficiencies of sodium and chloride can be due to 1. Excessive fluid loss 2. Bleeding 3. Diarrhea 4. Vomiting 5. Excessive perspiration 6. Alkalosis (chloride deficiency)
The 4 strenths of NaCl are 1. 0.9% (whole) 2. 0.45% (half) 3. 0.33% (one third) 4. 0.225% (one fourth)
What are the principle minerals in the body 1. Sodium Chloride 2. Potassium 3. Calcium 4. Iron 5. Zinc
Natural sources of Potassium (K) 1. Citris fruit 2. Bananas 3. Tomatoes 4. Potato skins 5. Cantalope 6. Avacado 7. Apricots 8. Dried and fresh fruits 9. Beans 10. Peas
What is Potassium necessary for 1. Acid/base and fluid balance 2. Heart beat regulation
Why does one get Potassium deficiencies 1. Weight reduction diet 2. Diarrhea or vomiting 3. Diabetic ketoacidosis 4. Diaphoresis (excessive perspiration) 5. Diuretic use (ex: thiazides and furosemides) 6. Digitalis toxicity 7. Long term use of laxitives or cortocosteroids
What are signs of deficiency 1. Muscle weakness, cramping or paralysis 2. Cardiac arythemia 3. Lethargy or fatigue 4. Mental apathy and confusion
What are some of the oral products available in Potassium 1. Effervescent tablet or powder to be dissolved in water or juice (K-Lyte 50-100mEq qd) 2. Capsules to be swallowed (Micro-K) 3. Extended release (K-Dur, or Slow-K) 4. Oral liquid (Kaochlor)
What are side effects of Potassium 1. N/V 2. Diarrhea 3. GI bleeding 4. Abdominal pain
Hyperkalemia Excessive potassium in the blood
What are sypmtoms of potassium overdose 1. Listlessness 2. Confusion 3. Weakness or paralysis of extremities 4. Drop in blood pressure 5. Cardiac arythmia with possible heart blockage
Patients taking potassium should be instructed 1. Natural sources of potassium rich foods 2. Conditions requiring potassium supplements 3. Directions for taking potassium 4. Importance of dissolving the tablet 5. Notify a doctor immediately of any side effects
What are the directions for taking potassium supplements Take with or after meals to avoid GI distress and follow directions on package carefully
How should potassium be taken Dissolve the tablet in at least 4 to 8 ounces of water completely before taking it and never hold the tablet in the mouth or swallow the tablet whole
What is calcium (Ca) Mineral component of bones and teeth
Where is calcium absorbed In the small intestine with the help of vitamin D
What are some natural sources of calcium Milk and dairy products
What is calcium necessary for 1. Strong bones and teeth 2. Contraction of cardiac, smooth, and skeletal muscles 3. Nerve conduction 4. Blood coagulation, capillary permeability and normal blood pressure 5. Renal function
What are calcium and magnesium important in The prevention of heart disease
Deficiencies in calcium may be due to 1. Pregnancy 2. Post menapausal woman or those with estrogen deficiencies 2. Hypoperathyroidism 4. Long term use of cortocosteroids, some diuretics, or anticonvulsants 5. Chronic diarrhea or pancreatitis 6. Renal failure
What are some signs of a deficiency in calcium 1. Osteoporosis 2. Osteomalacia (softening of the bones) 3. Ricketts in children 4. Muscle cramps or cardiac myopathy 5. Increased clotting time
What is the recommended dosage of calcium supplements 400 - 600 mg daily po (Os-Cal or Tums E-X
What are some calcium products available 1. Calcium gluconate 2. Calcium carbonate 3. Calcium lactate
What product delivers the highest amount of elemental calcium per tablet Calcium carbonate
What are side effects of calcium salts 1. Constipation from oral products 2. Tissue irritation from IV products
When should calcium be taken 1 - 1 1/2 hours after meals
What are some interactions with calcium 1. Digitalis (may cause arrhythmias) 2. Tetracycline (inactivates the antibiotics)
Patients taking calcium should be instructed how 1. Calcium rich diets 2. Necessity for calcium supplements 3. Importance of upright exercise to prevent bone mass 4. Outdoor activity because sunlight helps create vitamin D necessary for calcium metabolism 6. Not taking calcium at the same time
What is the oxygen-carrying component of blood Iron (Fe)
Iron is a mineral found in what foods 1. Meat (especially liver) 2. Egg yolk 3. Beans 4. Spinach 5. Enriched cereals 6. Oysters 7. Dried fruits 8. Prune juice
What is iron necessary for 1. Hemoglobin formation 2. Strengthens the immune system, increasing resistance to infection
What are deficiencies in iron due to 1. Hemorrhage or excessive menstral flow 2. Internal bleeding, ulcers, GI tumors 3. Pregnancy 4. Infancy 5. Puberty 6. Patients going on hemodialysis
What are signs of deficiency of iron 1. Paleness of skin or mucous membranes 2. Lethargy or weakness 3. Vertigo 4. Shortness of breath 5. Declined mental skills 6. Irregular heartbeat 7. Craving of non-food items (ex: ice, clay, starch)
What is the treatment of anemia due to iron deficiency consist of 1. Ferrous sulfate (Feosol, Fer-in-Sol) adults 50-100mg tid after meals
Side effects of taking iron 1. Black stool 2. Nausia and vomiting 3. Constipation or diarrhea 4. Anaphalactic reactions or phlebitis
Iron is contraindicated in patients with 1. Ulcers 2. Reginal enteritis 3. Ulcerative colitis
What will iron interact with 1. Vitamin C (increases iron absorption) 2. Coffee or tea taken within 2 hours of iron (reduces iron absorption by as much as 50%) 3. Tetracycline absorption is inhibited by oral iron 4. Antacids decrease iron absorption
Symptoms of acute overdose of iron may include 1. Lethargy 2. Shock 3. Vomiting and diarrhea 4. Errosion of the GI tract
Patient education for iron products includes 1. Avoid self-medication without a blood test showing a need 2. Black stool is to be expected 3. Take iron at meals 4. Take with Orange Juice for better absorption 5. Avoid coffee, tea, milk or antacids
Patient education for iron products includes (number 6-7) 6. Iron in meats is called heme iron and is better absorbed than nonheme iron in fruits and vegetables 2. Nonheme iron is absorbed better if consumed with a rich source of vitamin C
Zinc is an essential element in Metabolism
Food rich in Zinc are 1. Lean meat 2. Organ meats 3. Oysters 4. Poultry 5. Fish 6. Whole grain
What is Zinc necessary for 1. Healing wounds 2. Mineralization of bones 3. Digestion of protein 4. Insulin/glucose regulation 5. Normal taste 6. Detox of alcohol in the liver
Symptoms of Zinc deficiencies include 1. Poor wound healing 2. Reduced taste perception 3. Poor alcohol intolerance 4. Glucose intolerance 5. Anemia 6. Slow growth 7. Sterility 8. Dermatitis 9. Hair loss
Zinc toxicity is more than 2g/day. Toxicity may cause 1. Nausia/vomiting 2. GI stress 3. Interferance with immune system
Treatment of Zinc deficiencies consisit of 200-300 mg tabs or caps with meals tid to minimize gastric distress
Patient education for Zinc include 1. Well balanced diet 2. Food preparation to avoid loss of vitamines 3. Signs of deficiency and overdose 4. Caution taking supplements without established need or without medical assistance, especially megadoses, fat-soluble vitamins, and iron
Created by: shelleyrobb