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Crim. Just. Chp 10

Probation Parole Community Corrections

QuestionAnswer
Probation sentence served under supervision in the community
most common form of sentencing in USA probation
do violent offenders receive probation yes
probation conditions general specific
National Probation Act in 1925 United States Probation and Pretrial Services System Help with overcrowding problems
Parole supervised early release of inmates from correctional confinement
Prisoner reentry stimulus for positive behavioral change
Discretionary parole Parole board assessment Job readiness, home plans, past record, good behavior, previous release experiences
Statutory release Sentence minus good time or gain time
inmates freed from prisons on parole 25%
parolees successfully complete parole 49%
why more aren't on parole Parole violation or new offense
major factor in reducing recidivism Successful employment
1984 Comprehensive Crime Control Act Began a phaseout of the US Parole Commission
Advantages of Probation and Parole Lower cost Increased employment Restitution Community support Reduced criminal socialization Increased use of community services Increased opportunity for rehabilitation
Disadvantages of Probation and Parole Relative lack of punishment Increased risk to the community Increased social costs
Revocation quarter of probationers and parolees have their conditional release revoked every year
Main violations Failure to report to PO Failure to participate in stipulated treatment program Substance abuse
are decision makers liable for parolees or probationers crimes No
do parole boards need to specify in the decisions that they make no
can Probation be revoked due to failure to pay fines no
can Police officers conduct warrantless search on parolees without probable cause yes
Safeguards against revocation Notice and hearing are both required Evidence Rights to confront adverse witnesses neutral hearing body
Probation and Parole Officers
Four functions of probation/parole officers Presentence investigation Intake procedure Diagnosis and needs assessment Client supervision
is confidentiality required or priviledged expected not priviledged
2 conflicting modelsof Pb and Pa officers Social workers correctional officers
Caseload of Prb and Prl officers 250 clients average
Intermediate Sanctions Between imprisonment and probation Split sentencing Shock probation and shock parole Boot camp Home confinement and Remote Monitoring
Three advantages of Intermediate Sanctions Less expensive Socially cost-effective Flexibility in resources
Reentry
people released from prison that are rearrested within three years 2 of 3
Barriers in reentry mental illness; substance abuse; social skills; job skills; education; stigma; financial difficulties; housing
Prison to community transition Institution-based programs Community-based programs Long-term support programs
The Future Evidence-based practice balance between rehabilitation and offender accountability Reentry important as community safety underlying problems, rather than just crime
Created by: KyronCox