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Biology- Chemistry

Note cards for chemistry test in biology class

QuestionAnswer
Isotopes are different forms of the same element that: Differ in their numbers of neutrons.
Which of the following is NOT a molecule? A. H2 B. H2O C. CH4 D. O2 E. H H
True or false: Table salt form from sodium and chloride via hydrogen boding. False- Table salt forms from ionic bonding.
The molartiy of a solution is... a measure of solute concentration
This is formed when one atom loses an electron to another atom cations and anions that can form ionic bonds
True or false: The presence of salt helps prevent the ocean from freezing. True
Which of the following represents an ion? a. Ca2+ b. He c. H2 d. CO2 e. KCl Ca2+
For water to vaporize: a. energy must be supplied b. energy must be released c. hydrogen bonds are broken d. both energy must be supplied and hydrogen bonds broken e. both energy must be released and hydrogen bonds broken Both energy must be supplied and hydrogen bonds broken
Nitrogen has 7 electrons and can form a maximum of_____ bonds with other elements. a. 1 b. 2 c. 3 d. 4 e. 5 3
True or false: One gram of hydrogen, which has an atomic mass of 1, would have fewer atoms than 1 gram of carbon that has an atomic mass of 12. True
In water, MgCl2 dissociates into Mg2+ and Cl-. Based on this information what type of bond is involved in the formation of MgCl2? a. hydrogen b. ionic c. polar covalent d. nonpolar covalent e. electrostatic ionic
If orange juice has a pH of 4 then... it is an acidic solution
When one oxygen atom shares two pairs of electrons with another oxygen atom, O2 is formed via a(n) a. single covalent bond b. double covalent bond c. triple covalent bond d. ionic bond e. hydrogen bond double covalent bond
The atomic number of an atom is... the number of protons in an atom
Which is true abou a pH buffer? a. it increases the amount of H+ in an acidic solution b. reduces the amount of H+ in an acidic solution c. it reduces the amount of H+ in an alkaline solution d. it increases the amount of OH- ions in an alkaline solut reduces the amount of H+ in an acidic solution
T/F: molecules are generally rigid structures and rarely change shape. False
Considering solutions with the following pH, which is alkaline? a. 8 b. 7 c. 6 d. 5 8
T/F: Isotopes are different forms of the same element. true
The nucleus of an atom is composed of a. protons b. neutrons c. electrons d. protons and neutrons e. protons and electrons protons and neutrons
T/F: Sulfer 35 (35S) is an isotope of 32S. These elements differ in their number of neutrons. True
Which of the following represents an abundant element found in living organisms? a. calcium b. iron c. iodine d. hydrogen e. sodium hydrogen
pH buffers... a. prevent fluctuations in the acidity of solutions b. are usually strong acids c. prevent fluctuations in the salinity of solutions d. limit major shifts in the amount of H+ and OH- in solution. e. keep pH low prevent fluctuations in the acidity of solutions
The first, inner-most energy shell of an atom a. can have a maximum of 8 electrons b. can have a maximum of 2 electrons c. is called the 2p orbital d. is called the 1s orbital and can have a maximum of 8 electrons can have a maximum of 2 electrons
T/F: A dehydration reaction that builds larger molecules from smaller units requires the addition of a water molecule. False
Which of the following is a feature fo carbon that makes the formation of complex molecules possible? a. carbon can from a maximum of 8 covalent bonds b. carbon can form a maximum of 6 covalent bonds c. carbon can form a maximum of 4 covalent bonds carbon can form a maximum of 4 covalent bonds
Which of the following molecules is nonpolar? a. C2H5COOH b. C2H6 c. R-NH2 d. C3H7OH e. C5H10O5 C2H6
two molecules with identical molecular formulas but that have different structures are called a. polymers b. isomers c. isotopes d. monomers isomers
Which of the following has identical molecular formulas but different structures and characteristics? a. isomers b. sterioisomers c. enantiomers d. isotopes isomers
Which of the molecules is polar and acts like a base? a. R-NH2 b. R-CO-R c. R-OH d. R-PO4 e. R-SH a. R-NH2
Which functional group characterizes alcohols? a. NH2 b. COOH c. PO4 d. SH e. OH OH
Which functional group forms covalent bonds between peptide chains to stabilize the tertiary structure of proteins? a. NH2 b. COOH c. PO4 d. SH e. OH SH
Which of the following is a polymer? a. a fatty acid b. a monosaccharide c. a nucleotide d. an amino acid e. a protein a protein
Which of the following is a polymer of glucose? a. triglyceride b. cellulose c. DNA d. protein e. RNA cellulose
A disaccharide, such as maltose, consists of two molecules of glucose linked by what type of bond? a. phosphodiester b. glycosidic c. steroid d. peptide e. hydrogen glycosidic
Which of these is NOT a lipid? a. phospholipid b. cholesterol c. steroid d. glycogen e. triglyceride glycogen
Which of the following is NOT a property of a fat or fatty acid? a. they are both soluble in water b. a fat can contain different fatty acids c. fatty acids can vary in their number and location of C-C double bonds d. fatty acids may vary in length they are both soluble in water
The sequence of amino acids in a protein is its________structure. a. primary b. secondary c. tertiary d. quaternary e. hepternary primary
A protein______structure contains helixes and sheets that form from hydrogen bonding between carboxyl and amino groups of the peptide chain? a. primary b. secondary c. tertiary d. quaternary e. both secondary and quaternary secondary
Acetic acid gives vinegar its sour taste. Which functional group i an acid? a. -OH b. -NH2 c. -SH d. -COOH e. -CO -COOH
Which portion of an amino acid is unique between the 20 different amino acids? a. carboxyl b. amino c. hydrocarbon d. the side chain or R-group e. peptide bonding the side chain or R-group
Which is true of the nucleotide base composition within the DNA double helix? a. G=A b. T=C c. T+A=C+G d. T+G=A+C e. A=U T+A=C+G
Which of the following statements BEST summarizes structural differences between DNA and RNA? a.RNA is a protein while DNA is a nucleic acid b.RNA is a polymer but DNA is not c.DNA contains a different sugar than RNA d.RNA is a double helix but DNA is DNA contains a different sugar than RNA
An amino acid is to a protein as a___________is to a nucleic acid. a. glucose b. glycerol c. nucleotide d. fatty acid e. cellulose nucleotide
T/F: Fredrich Wohler refuted the scientific concept of vitalism during the early 1800s by proving that organic molecules could be synthesized outside a living organism. true
T/F: Macromolecules such as lipids and carbohydrates are produced from monomers through condensation reactions true
T/F: The sole function of carbohydrates is to serve as energy stores. true
T/F: Saturated fats are composed of fatty acids with several double bonded carbons. False
T/F: The primary structure of a protein ultimately determines its three-dimensional structure. False
T/F: The four nucleotide bases found in DNA are identical to those in RNA. False
Which of the following ending will tell you that a molecule is an enzyme? a. -polyp b. -ase c. -ial d. -ing -ase
Created by: hayley.kionka