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US History Unit 1


Native Americans and land ownership land regarded as a source for life, not a commodity to be sold. Couldn't be "owned"
Reformation criticized church practices and challenged the authority of the pope
Renaissance cultural awakening in Europe, rekindled interest in physical world (interest in Greek and Roman philosophy, science, mathematics)
Columbian Exchange Exchange of new plants and animals between Americas, Europe and Africa. Some items were Corn, Potatoes, Tobacco, Stock, grains, fruit, coffee etc
Spanish Missions Missions in New Mexico, Texas, California and throughout southwest. Goal to convert to Christianity and educate native people in European ways and skills
Jamestown Colony Rocky start, looking for Gold Contaminated river water made many ill. Smith forced colony to farm and support surrounding natives. Smith injured returned to England, colony deteriorated until new colonists and the development of profitable crop, Tobacco.
Cash Crop Crops that are farmed because of their value and trade
Mercantilism Economic system aimed at self-reliance and strengthening the national economy by accumulating bullion, gaining colonies, and establishing a favorable balance of trade
Colonial governments Governor appointed by crown, presided over advisory council, and a local assembly (land owning white males)
Triangular trade process which goods and enslaved people were exchanged across the Atlantic ocean.
Navigation acts England and some colonists benefitted. Spurred boom in colonial ship building
Middle Passage trade route Africa, West Indies and later North America. Cruel, crowded and high mortality rate
Enlightenment Period in the 1700s when philosophers believed that they could apply the scientific method and use reason to explain human nature logically
Great Awakening A revival of religious belief because of speeches and 'revivals'. This leads to a belief in equality, liberty, and resistance to authority. One factor that leads to the revolution
Intolerable Acts punish people of Mass for Boston Tea Party. Parliament laws, restricted colonists' rights. Restrictions on town meetings, enforcing officials who killed colonists in the line of duty would be tried in Britain
First Continental Congress Met in response to the Intolerable Acts and involved 12 out of 13 colonies. They organized boycott and wrote the Declaration of Rights
Second Continental Congress met to discuss next move after battles of Lexington and Concord. Disagreement and debate but did recognize Continental Army and appoint George Washington Commander
Natural Rights The idea that all humans are born with rights, which include the right to life, liberty, and property
Declaration of Independence The document approved by representatives of the American colonies in 1776 that stated their grievances against the British monarch and declared their independence.
Egalitarianism belief in the principle that all people are equal and deserve equal rights and opportunities
Article of Confederation Weakness Created weak central government and little unity among states. No court system to settle disputes between states
Federalism the constitutional system that shares power between the national and state governments.
Separation of powers The structure of the government provided for in the Constitution where authority is divided between the executive, legislative, and judicial branches
Bill of Rights First ten amendments to the Constitution, guaranteeing civil rights for American citizens as forced by Antifederalists, drafted by a group led by James Madison
Two-Party System came from differences in Washington’s cabinet. Hamilton (Federalists strong central government) versus Jefferson (Democratic-Republican strong states
nullification a refusal of the states to accept a federal law, part of Jefferson's interpretation of compact theory; in terms of Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions in response to Alien and Sedition Acts
Created by: PLHShistory1