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Gastroenterology (JCMC)

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Visceral pain   dull, poorly localized pain that originates in the walls of hollow organs  
Three separate mechanisms can produce visceral pain   : inflammation, distension, and ischemia; all of which transmit a pain signal from visceral afferent neural fibers back to the spinal column  
Peritonitis   inflammation of the peritoneum, which lines the abdominal cavity.  
Somatic pain   sharp, localized pain that originates in walls of the body such as skeletal muscles.  
Referred pain   pain that originates in a region other than where it is felt  
Cullen’s sign   ecchymosis in the periumbilical area  
Grey-Turner’s sign   ecchymosis in the flank  
upper GI bleeding   bleeding within the GI tract proximal to the ligament of Treitz  
Ligament of Treitz   ligament that supports the doedenojejunal junction  
Mallory-Weiss tear   esophageal laceration, usually secondary to vomiting  
Sengstaken-Blakemore tube   three-lumen tube used in treating esophageal bleeding.  
esophageal varix   swollen vein of the esophagus.  
protal   pertaining to the flow of blood into the liver  
cirrhosis   degenerative disease of the liver; results in fatty deposits and fibrosis in te liver parenchymal tissue, thus obstructing portal blood flow  
acite gastroenteritis   sudden onset of inflammation of the stomach and intestines  
hematochezia   bright red blood in the stool caused by erosion of the lising of the lower GI tract  
chronic gastroenteritis   nonacute inflammation of the gastrointestinal mucosa; due primarily to microbial infection  
Pepic ulcers   erosions caused by gastric acid; they can occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract  
Duodenal ulcers   most frequently occur in the proximal portion of the duodenum  
gastric ulcers   occur exclusively in the stomach  
 Zollinger-Ellison syndrome   condition that causes the stomach to secrete excessive amounts of hydrochloric acid and pepsin  
lower GI bleeding   bleeding in the GI tract distal to the ligament of Treitz.  
Ulcerative colitis   classified as an idiopathic inflammatory bowel disorder (IBD), one of unknown origin  
pancolitis   ulcerative colitis spread throughout the entire colon  
proctitis   ulcerative colitis limited to the rectum  
colic   acute pain associated with cramping or spasms in the abdominal organs  
Crohn’s disease   idiopathic inflammatory bowel disorder associated with the small intestine; can occur anywhere from the mouth to the rectum  
diverticulitis   inflammation of diverticula  
diverticulosis   presence of diverticula with or without associated bleeding  
diverticula   small outpouchings in the mucosal lining of the intestinal tract  
Hemorrhoids   small mass of swollen veins in the anus or rectum  
bowel obstruction   blockage of the hollow space within the intestines  
hernia   protrusion of an organ through its protective sheath  
intussusception   condition the occurs when part of the intestine slips in to the part just distal to itself  
vulvulus   twisting of the intestine on itself  
adhesion   union of normally separate tissue surfaces by a fibrous band of new tissue  
infarction   area of dead tissue caused by a lack of blood  
Appendicitis   inflammation of the vermiform appendix at the juncture of the large and small intestines  
McBurney’s point   common site of pain from appendicitis, one to two inches above the anterior iliac crest in a direct line with the umbilicus  
Cholecystitis   inflammation of the gallbladder  
Cholelithiasis   formation of gallstones  
Murphy’s sign   pain caused when an inflamed gallbladder is palpated by pressing under the right costal margin  
Pancreatitis   inflammation of the pancreas  
Chronic pancreatitis   acinar tissue destruction commonly occurs due to chronic alcohol intake, drug toxicity, ischemia, or infectious diseases  
Hepatitis   involves any injury to hepatocytes associated with an inflammation or infection.  
hepatitis A (HAV)   spreads by the oral-fecal route  
Hepatitis B (HBV)   known as serum hepatitis is transmitted as a blood borne pathogen that can stay active in bodily fluids outside the body for days  
Hepatitis C (HCV)   is caused by the pathogen most commonly responsible for spreading hepatitis thought blood transfusions; marked by chronic and often debilitating damage to the liver  
Hepatitis D (HDV)   is a less common disorder because its pathogen is dormant until activated by HBV  
Hepatitis E (HEV)   is waterborne infection that has caused epidemics in Africa, Mexico, and other third-world nations  


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Created by: cabbie911 on 2004-11-11

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