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SB82 Urology quiz questions based on Fiser's ABSITE Review, 3rd edition.

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Location of Gerota's fascia   Around kidney  
Right renal artery crosses ________ (anterior/posterior) to IVC   Posterior  
Ureters cross __________ (over/under) iliac vessels   Under  
Reason why left renal vein can be ligated from IVC if necessary   Left renal vein has collaterals  
Most common cause of acute renal insufficiency following surgery   Hypotension  
Most common type of renal calculi   Calcium oxalate stones  
Second most common type of renal calculi   Struvite aka magnesium ammonium phosphate  
Collaterals involved with left renal vein   1) Left adrenal vein 2) Left gonadal vein 3) Left ascending lumbar vein  
Percentage of renal calculi that are calcium oxalate   75%  
Percentage of renal calculi that are struvite   15%  
Type of renal calculi that are always radiolucent   Uric acid stones  
Terminal ileum resection causes increase in what type of renal calculi?   Calcium oxalate  
Struvite stones are more common in what conditions?   Infection with urease-producing organisms (Proteus mirabilis)  
Staghorn calculi belong to which type of renal calculus?   Struvite  
Uric acid stones are more common in these three conditions   Ileostomies, gout, myeloproliferative disorders  
Renal calculi: Indications for surgery (4)   Intractable pain or infection, progressive obstruction, progressive renal damage, solitary kidney  
If kidney stone size is greater than ________, they are not likely to pass   6 mm  
#1 cancer killer in men ages 25-35   Testicular cancer  
Main symptom of testicular cancer   Painless hard testicular mass  
Rationale during orchiectomy for testicular cancer for using an inguinal incision rather than transscrotal incision   Inguinal incision does not disrupt lymphatics  
Most testicular masses are ____________ (benign/malignant)   Malignant  
LDH correlates with what aspect of testicular cancer?   Tumor bulk  
90% of testicular tumors are ___________   Germ cell tumors  
Imaging for testicular cancer   US to assist in diagnosis, CXR to assess for pulmonary metastases, CT to check for retroperitoneal and mediastinal burden  
Lab tests for testicular cancer   LDH, AFP, beta-HCG  
What condition causes increased risk for testicular cancer?   Cryptorchidism  
Most common type of testicular cancer in cryptorchidism   Seminoma  
Most common testicular cancer   Seminoma  
As opposed to seminomas, NSGCTs have an elevation of this substance   AFP  
Testicular seminomas spread to the ____________   Retroperitoneum  
NSGCTs spread through the __________________   Bloodstream  
Seminoma is extremely sensitive to this treatment   Radiation therapy  
Chemotherapy for seminoma patients with positive nodes, metastatic disease, or bulky retroperitoneal disease   Cisplatin, bleomycin, VP-16  
Areas of spread for NSGCTs   Lungs and retroperitoneum  
NGSCTs with a ___________ component are more likely to spread to the retroperitoneum   Teratomatous  
Treatment for stage I NSGCT   Orchiectomy and retroperitoneal node dissection  
Most common location of prostate cancer   Posterior lobe of prostate  
Most common site and appearance of prostate cancer metastasis   Bone, usually osteoblastic and hyperdense on X-ray  
Treatment for Stage IA prostate cancer discovered with TURP   No treatment necessary  
Expected PSA three weeks after prostatectomy   0  
Reasons for elevated PSA   Cancer, BPH, prostatitis, repeated catheterization  
Action of flutamide   Testosterone blocker  
Action of leuprolide   Luteinizing hormone blocker  
Lab test to assess metastases from prostate cancer   Alkaline phosphatase - elevated with bony metastasis  
Most common primary tumor of kidney   Renal cell carcinoma  
Percentage of renal cell carcinomas that are calcified   15%  
Triad of symptoms in RCC   Abdominal pain, hematuria, mass  
Percentage of patient with RCC who have metastases at time of diagnosis   33%  
Treatment for isolated lung or liver metastases due to RCC   Wedge resection  
Most common site for RCC metastases   Lung  
Cause of hypertension in RCC   Erythrocytosis due to increase erythropoietin in RCC  
Structures excised in radical nephrectomy   Kidney, adrenal, fat, Gerota's fascia, regional lymph nodes  
Most common primary tumor that metastasizes to kidney   Breast  
Renal angiomyolipomas usually occur in this genetic disorder   Tuberous sclerosis  
Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome   Multifocal and recurrent RCC, renal cysts, CNS tumors, pheochromocytomas  
Rationale for excising renal angiomyolipomas   Excise if symptomatic, usually if >4cm  
Most common type of bladder cancer   Transitional cell carcinoma  
Main symptom of bladder cancer   Painless hematuria  
Bladder cancer is more common in _________ (males/females)   Males  
Risk factors for developing bladder cancer   Smoking, aniline dyes, cyclophosphamide  
Treatment for stage I bladder cancer   Intravesical BCG or transurethral resection  
Treatment for stage II bladder cancer   Cystectomy with ileal conduit, chemotherapy, radiation  
Chemotherapy regimen used to treat bladder cancer   MVAC - methotrexate, vinblastine, adriamycin, cisplatin  
Cause of squamous cell carcinoma of bladder   Schistosomiasis  


   





 
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