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Comparison of Alkalosis and Acidosis

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Normal pH   7.35-7.45  
Normal PCO2   35-45  
Normal HCO3   22-26  
Alkalosis pH   >7.45  
Acidosis pH   <7.35  
PCO2 >45   respiratory acidosis  
PCO2 <35   respiratory alkalosis  
HCO3 >26   metabolic alkalosis  
HCO3 <22   metabolic acidosis  
If PCO2 between 35-45 then   No respiratory problems and no respiratory compensation for metabolic problems  
if HCO3 between 22-26 then   No primary metabolic problems and the kidneys are not compensating for respiratory problems  
If PCO2 >45 then   Respiratory retention of CO2 to compensate for metabolic alkalosis  
If PCO2 <35 then   Respiratory retention of CO2 to compensate for metabolic acidosis  
If HCO3 <22 then   Kidneys are attempting to compensate for respiratory alkalosis  
If HCO3 >26 then   Kidneys are attempting to compensate for repiratory acidosis  
Causes of respiratory alkalosis   Alveolar hyperventilation  
Causes of respiratory acidosis   Alveolar hypoventilation  
Causes of metabolic alkalosis   Bicarbonate ingestion, vomiting, diuretics, steroids, adrenal disease  
Causes of metabolic acidosis   Diabetic, lactic, or uremic acidosis, prolonged diarrhea  
Signs/Symptoms of respiratory alkalosis   Dizziness, syncope, tingling, numbness, early tetany  
Signs/Symptoms respiratory acidosis   Early: anxiety, restlessness, dyspnea, headache; Late: confusion, somnolence, coma  
Signs/Symptoms metabolic alkalosis   Vague symptoms: weakness, mental dullness, possible early tetany  
Signs/Symptoms metabolic acidosis   Secondary hyperventilation (Kussmaul's breathing), nausea and vomiting, cardiac dysrhythmias, lethargy, and coma  
7.35- 7.45   normal ph  
35 -45   normal CO2  
22-26   normal HCO3  


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