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Special Senses: Eye and Ear Ch14 Terminology

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Eye   ophthalm/o, ocul/o  
Orbit   each eye is encased in a protective, bony socket called an orbit  
Canthi   corners of the eye  
Eyelids   palpebro/o, blephar/o  
Palpebral fissure   area where upper and lower eyelids meet  
Palpebration   blinking/closing ones eyes  
Conjunctivae   (conjunctiv/o) membrane that lines eyelids and covers the surface of the eye  
Meibomian   sebaceous (oil-secreting glands of the skin) of the eyelashes  
Lacrimal   (lacrim/o) tear gland  
lacrimation   the process of producing tears  
lacrimal glands   dacryoaden/o  
lacrimal sacs   dacryocyst/o  
extraocular muscles   attach the eyeball to the orbit and move the eyes  
outer layer   fibrous tunic  
sclera   (scler/o) hard, white covering of the eye (white of the eye)  
cornea   (kerat/o, corne/o) transparent portion of the sclera that covers the anterior section of the eye  
limbus   border of the cornea, between the cornea and the sclera  
middle layer   vascular tunic  
uvea   (uve/o) Choroid, ciliary body, iris  
iris   (ir/o, irid/o) smooth muscle that contracts and relaxes to moderate the amount of light that enters the eye (colored part of the eye)  
pupil   (pupill/o, cor/o, core/o) dark area in the center of the iris  
ciliary body   cycl/o  
lens   phac/o, phak/o  
aqueous and vitrous humors   (vitre/o) jellylike substance  
inner layer   nervous tunic  
retina   retin/o  
rods   responsible for vision in dim light  
cones   responsible for color vision  
macula lutea   (macul/o) area of the retina on which the light rays focus  
fovea   contains only cones and provides sharpest vision  
optic disk   (papill/o) natural blind spot  
blepharedema   swelling of the eyelid  
blepharitis   inflammation of the eye  
blepharoptosis   drooping of the upper eyelid  
ectropin   turning outward of the eyelid  
entropion   turning inward of the eyelid toward the eye  
chalazion   hardened swelling of the meimobian gland resulting from a blockage (also known as Meibomian cyst)  
hordeolum   stye  
dacryoadenitis   inflammation of a lacrimal gland  
dacryocystitis   inflammation of a lacrimal sac  
epiphora   overflow of tears  
xerophthalmia   dry eye  
conjunctivitis   pink eye  
ophthalmic neonatorum   severe, purulent conjunctivitis in the newborn, usually due to gnorrheal or chlamydial infection  
diplopia   double vision  
emmetropia   normal vision  
exophthalmia   protrusion of the eyeball from its orbit  
strabismus   general term for lack of coordination between the eyes, usually due to a muscle weakness or paralysis  
esotropia   turning inward of one or both eyes (cross eyed)  
exotropia   turning outward of one or both eyes  
photophobia   extreme sensitivity to light  
myopia   nearsightedness  
hyperopia   farsightedness  
astigmatism   malcurvature of the cornea leading to blurred vision  
presbyopia   progressive loss of elasticity of the lens (usually accompanies aging)  
corneal ulcer   trauma to the outer covering of the eye resulting in an abrasion  
keratitis   inflammation of the cornea  
aphakia   condition of no lens  
cataract   progressive loss of transparency of the lens of the eye  
glaucoma   abnormal intraoccular pressure due to obstruction of the outflow of the aqueous humor  
achromatopsia   color blindness  
ARMD/AMD   Age-related macular degeneration  
VA   visual acuity (Snellen chart)  
blepharoplasty   surgical repair of the eyelids  
blepharorrhaphy   suture of the eyelids  
dacryocystorhinostomy   creation of an opening between the tear sac and the nose  
enucleation of the eye   removal of the entire eyeball  
evisceration of the eye   removal of the contents of the eyeball, leaving the outer coat (sclera) intact  
exenteration of the eye   removal of the entire contents of the orbit  
cataract extraction   removal of the lens to treat cataracts  
IOLs   (Intraocular lenses) implantable contact lens  
Phacoemulsification and aspiration of a cataract   vision correction accomplished through the destruction and removal of the contents of the capsule by breaking it into small pieces and removing them by suction  
scleral buckling   reattachment of the retina with a cryoprobe and the use of a silicone sponge to push the sclera in toward the retinal scar  
vitrectomy   (vitr/o) removal of part of all of the vitreous humor  
lubricants   medications that keep the eyes moist, mimicking natural tears  
miotics   drugs that cause the pupils to CONSTRICT  
mydriatics   drugs that cause the pupils to DILATE  
ophthalmics   drugs applied directly to the eye  
topical anesthetics   medications used to temporarily anesthetize the eye for the purpose of examination  
ECCE   extracapsular cataract extraction  
ICCE   intracapsular cataract extraction  
IOL   intraocular lens  
IOP   intraocular pressure  
OD   RIGHT eye  
OS   LEFT eye  
OU   BOTH eyes  
ear   ot/o, aur/o, auricul/o  
pinna/auricle   flesh covered cartilage of the outer ear  
cerumen   (cerumin/o) ear wax  
external auditory meatus   meat/o  
tympanic membrane   (tympan/o, myring/o) eardrum  
ossicles/ossicular chain   (ossicul/o) -malleus -incus -stapes (staped/o)  
eustachian tube   (salping/o) auditory tube; connection between the ears and the throat that equalizes pressure within the middle ear  
inner ear   (labyrinth/o)  
vestibule   (vestibul/o) utricle, saccule  
semicircular canals   crista ampullaris  
inner ear made up of...   -membranous and bony labyrinth -perilymph and endolymph  
cochlea   (cochle/o) -organ of corti -vestibulocochlear nerve/eighth cranial nerve  
otalgia/otodynia   ear ache; pain in the ear  
otorrhea   discharge from the auditory canal  
tinnitus   abnormal ringing, buzzing or jingling in the ear  
vertigo   dizziness  
impacted cerumen   blockage of the external auditory canal with earwax  
macrotia   condition of abnormally large ears  
microtia   condition of abnormally small auricles (ears)  
otitis externa   inflammation of the outer ear and ear canal (swimmer's ear)  
infectious myringitis   inflammation of the eardrum due to a bacterial or viral infection  
mastoiditis   inflammation of the mastoid process of the temporal bone  
otitis media   OM -inflammation of the middle ear  
labyrinthitis   inflammation of the inner ear  
Meniere disease   chronic condition of the inner ear characterized by vertigo, hearing loss and tinnitus  
ruptured tympanic membrane   tear (perforation) in the eardrum due to trauma or disease  
otoscopy   otoscope  
typanometry   typanogram  
UNHS   universal newborn hearing screening  
OAEs   otoacoustic emissions  
ABR   auditory brainstem response  
cochlear implant   device that assists those with hearing loss by electrically stimulating the cochlea  
mastoidectomy   removal of the mastoid process  
otoplasty   repair and/or reconstruction of the outer ear  
stapedectomy   removal of the third ossicle, the stapes from the middle ear  
typanoplasty   surgical repair of the eardrum  
typanostomy/myringostomy   surgical creation of an opening through the eardrum to promote drainage and/or allow the introduction of artificial tubes to maintain the opening (also known as myringostomy)  
typanotomy/myringotomy   incision of the eardrum  
ENT   ear, nose, throat  
OM   ititis media  
Oto   otology  
TM   tympanic membrane (eardrum)  


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