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Digestive System

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Question
Answer
What are the functions of the Gi tract   Motility, Secretion, Digestion, Absorption  
What is motility   Movement- starts w/ swallowing  
What is secretion   stats in the mouth w/ saliva (goes through GI) pH in stomach is <1.0 breaks down food. Chime in the stomah when dumped to deuodum neutralizes  
Parasympathetic nervous system is controlled by what nerve   vagus nerve  
What triggers peristalsis   foot streching stomach, increase in pH (when food enters stomach HCL acid is secreted, pleasant smell and hunger  
Sympathetic Nervous System when is it triggered?   conversely inhibits gastrointestinal activity, causes vasoconstriction, and reduces regeneration of epithelial cells  
What symptoms occur when PNS is inhibited by SNS   anorexia, nausea, vomiting  
Nausea vomiting are initiated by what?   medulla oblongata  
what is triggered with N/V   SNS  
what causes N/V   SNS being triggered, medications, noxious, IICP (increased intercranial pressure)  
Hematemesis   coffee ground vomit - partially digested food mixed with old blood  
what does it usually mean if stool is a deeper brown color   obstruction from lower intestine  
With dehydration what is the outcome   metabolic acidosis  
recurrent projectile vomiting may be what?   pyloric stenosos (seen in newborns)  
short tansit time, excess fluid volume flooding intestine, lactose intolerence, leads to hypovolemia and metabolic acidosis   large volume osmotic diarrhea  
bowel disease, may contain blood, pus, or mucous associated with chrones disease   small volume diarrhea  
fatty diarrhea, greasy, loose, and fould odor. MALABSORPTION SYNDROMES   Steatorrhea diarrhea  
small hidden amounts of blood blind to the naked eye   occult  
dark colored tarry stools associated with GI   Melena  
passing frank red blood   Hematochezia  
what can constipation lead to?   impaction  
what are these signs a cause of? ^ age, inadequate fiber, inadequate fluid intake, ignore urge, muscle weakness and activity,Neuro disorders, drugs, obstruction   constipation  
Cleft lip or palate   neural tube disorder  
thrush (overgrowth of yeast)   Aphthous ulcers  
HSV-1 transmittied through kissing or close contact- reactivates with stress   Herpes  
precancerous lesions (looks like thrush but in areas where things stimulate frequently) ie: chewing tobacco   Leukoplakia  
difficulty swallowing   dysphagia  
failure in esophageal sphincter to relax   Achalasia  
blind pouch   congenital atresia  
stenosis or stricture   Fibrosis  
undigested food in puch obstructs esophagus   diverticulum  
squamous cell carcinoma   esophageal CA  
where is esophageal CA most commonly found?   distal esophagus  
Chronic irritation (esophagitis, Achlasia, hiatal hernia, alcohol abuse, smoking) causes of   chronic irritation  
what are the two types of hiatal hernias   sliding, paraesophageal  
slides up and back down with position change. esp when lying down. Part of the stromach slies up and then down   sliding hernia  
part of the fundus of stomach moves above diaphragm (leads to mechanical constriction of blood vessels in stomach) sac forms above but never slides back down. Infection can form and sacs get full/ tight causing possible death to tha area of the stomach   paraesophageal hernia  
stomach contents chronically regurgitate into esophagus   GERD (gastroesophageal Reflux disease)  
weak esophageal spincter, obesity, hiatal hernia   GERD  
burning sharp pain in stomach leading to ulcers   acute gastritis  
infection, allergies to food or drugs, ingesting irritants frequently, excessive alcohol intake, ingestion of asprin, radiation, usually self limiting   acute gastritis  
characterized by atrophy of mucosa of stomach and loss of secretory glands   chronic gastritis  
Helicobacter pylori (h. pylori)   chronic gastritis  
bacteria that many times leads to ulcers   H. pylori  
ulcer found in proximal duodenum   Duodenal ulcers  
75% of what ulcers are located where   duodenal area  
found in stomach and lower esophageal   duodenal ulcers  
usually small cavity develops in mucosa that continues to erode into further layers below mucosa   peptic ulcers  
what ulcer may perforate stomach or intestinal wall and spill gastric contents into peritoneal cavity   peptic ulcers  
H. pylori is the most common cause   peptic ulcers  
inadequate blood supply, ulcergenic substances, atrophy of gastric mucosa, inc # of acid pepsin secretory cells in the stomac   peptic ulcers  
peptic ulcers cause   gastric CA  
epigastric aching, burning pain 2-3 hrs after meals or at lnight relieved by ingestion of foods or anacids, heartburn, Nausea, and intake spicy foods   Peptic ulcer syndrom  
Sever trauma, burns, headaches, hemorrhage, and sepsis cause   stress ulces  
Bruns cause   Curling's ulcers  
injury of head   Cushing's ulcers  
medications given with stress ulcers to prevent   hemorrhage  
control of gastric empting is lost (many times seen after gastric resection or partial gastrectomy   dumping syndrome  
what is lost with dumping sydnrome   appropriate dilution of chyme  
dizziness and weakness, weak pulse, hypoglycemia (distension of hypter-activates PNS increasing perstalsis and gastric dumping)   dumping syndrome  
formation of gallstones (calculi-bad fats LDL) that form in bile in the gallbladder   cholelithiasis  
stones obstruct duct and leads to inflammation of gallbladder and bile duct   cholecystitis  
Sever RUQ cholicy discomfort (biliarycolic) that leads to waves of deferred pain, epigastric pain, N/V, eventually jaundice, fever, leukocytosis   gallbladder attack  
inflammation of liver   hepatitis  
idopathic (fatty liver-obesity), viral hepatitis, mono, chemica/drug toxicity, chronic inflammation that begins to cause irreparable liver cell damage (cirrosis)   Hepatitis  
Virus that attacks the liver   viral hepatitis  
hep A & E, self limiting, oral/ fecal route of transmission   actue hepatitis  
Hep B, C, and D, blood/body fluids, life-long liver damage   Chronic forms  
liver disease   alcholic  
cirrhosis (stoes or cystic fibrosis) gull stones back up causing cystic fibrosis   biliary  
cirrhosis(chronic hepatitis or long term exposure to toxic material)   post necrotic  
storage disorder such as nemochromatosis   metabolic  
dec removal of bli, dec production of bile, impaired digestion and absorption, dec production of blood clotting factors, impaired glucose metabolism, dec removal of toxic substances, dec inactivation of hormones   cirrhosis  
r/t obstruction of bile ducts and blood flow by fibrous tissue   cirrhosis  
blockage of blood flow through liver and leads to increased pressure in portal veins- veins that go straight to the liver   portal HTN  
congestion in the spleen due to increaseing hemolysis   splenomegaly  
varicose veins appearnace along esophagus   esophageal varices  
causes ^ in hydrostatic pressure causing fluid build up in peritoneal cavity   ascites  
back up of bile in liver   jaundice  
phase that a person with hepatitis deveolops jaundice   icteric phase  
GI cancer generally causes problems with dysphagia   esophageal CA  
fatigue, ^ bili, anorexia, increased ATL   hepatitis  
epigastric pain, during night, improves when eating or anti-acid   duodenal ulcer  
bleeding in liver failure is from   esophageal varices  
loud gurglinlg abdominal sounds   borbarygmi  
fullness, anorexia, epigastric pain   chronic gastritis  
iching (common with biliary cirrhosis)   pruritis  
decr. bulk in diet->decr diameter of color->incr. pressure-> diverticula   divertiuclosis (pocket formation)  
colicky pain, upper rt. quadrant   cholelithiasis  
McBurney's point   appendicitis  
pt has been vomiting for the bast 4 hours acid balance is   metabolic alkalosis  
pt has been vomiting for the past 24+ hours and is dehydrated   metabolic acidosis  
bowel disease involves ulceration of the sigmoid and rectum   ulcerative colitis  
portal HTN causes   splenomegaly (enlargement of the spleen)  
failure to relax (IE dysphagia)   achalasia  
autodigestion   acute pancreatitis  
digestion of tissue by their own secretions   acute pancreatitis  
granulomas developing in areas of the small and larege intestine   Crohn's disease  
inflmammatory bowel disease marked by patchy areas of full-thickness inflammation anywhere in the GI tract from mouth to anus   Crohn's disease  
S&S of Crohns disease is   diarrhea  
stricture of the larege intestine   mechanical bowel obstruction  
fatigue, anorexia, wt loss, anemia, diarrhea, dull aching in RUQ, ascites, esophageal varices, edema, ^ bruising, jaundice, encephalopathy   cirrhosis  
inflammation of the pancreas resulting in autodigestion of tissue   pancreatitis  
premature activation of proenzymes in pancrease, activation of proenzyme trypsinogen to trypsin, trypsin converts other proenzymes and chemicals to activae amylase and ipase, enzymes digest pancreatic tissue, leads to massive inflammation, bleeding, nec   Acute pancreatitis  
severe epigastric or abd pain, shock, low grade fever (from inflammation), ascites, leukocytosis   gallstones and excessive alc. intake  
low b/p, pallor, sweating   signs of shock  
malabsorption syndrome that prevents breakdown of gluten-leads to malnutrition and intestinal inflammation   celiac disease  
Genetic link, steatorrha, muscle wasting, failure to thrive, must be on gluten free diet, ^ risk for intestinal CA   Celiac Disease  
Chronic inflammatory bowel disease- most frequently in small intestine   Crohn's Disease  
occurs in mucosal layer, develops shallow ulcerations, leads to thickened walls (OBSTRUCTION), destructive masses from granulomas in the intestin wealls and regional lymph nodes, decr. ability of Small Int. to metabolize and absorb nutritients, ^motility   Crohn's Disease  
Symptoms: Diarrhea, cramping, melena, pain RLQ, anorexia, Wt. loss, fatigue   Crohn's disease  
caused by continuous stress   ulcerative colitis  
inflammation begins in rectum and prgresses through the colon   ulcerative colitis  
mucosa and submucosa inflammed, tissue becomes fragile, vascular, bleeds easily, tissue destruction, inflammation impaires peristolsis, ^risk for colon CA   Ulcerative colitis  
Sever abd cramping, tenesums, bleeding with diarrhea, medical emergncy, toxic megacolon   ulcerative colitis syndrome  
tenesums   rectal spasms  
sigmoid colon and end of descending colon   diverticular disease  
herniation or outpouching of the mucosa through the muscle layer of the colon wall, frequently the sigmoid colon   diverticulum  
asymptomatic diverticular disease, usually multiple diverticula are present   diverticulosis  
refers to inflammation of the diverticula   diverticulitis  
low residue diets, irregular bowel habits, aging   diverticulum  
intestinal obstruction, perforation w/ peritonitis, abscess formation   complications of diverticulum  
mild lower abd pain, diarrhea/ constipation, flatulence, LLQ pain, fever, N/V, leukocytosis   Symptoms of diverticulum  
abd surgery, spinal cord injuries, inflammation w/ sever ischemia (decr in blood flow), infection of abd cavity   functional obstruction  
adhesions, hernias, strictures, masses, intussusception, volvulus, hirshsprung's disease   mechanical obstruction  
don't have intervation you need for perstalisis needed in colon   Hirschsprung's disease (diverticuli)  
intussusception   bowel telescopes into itself(diverticuli)  
strictures   adhesions  
pain develops as peristalsis increases   colicky abd (diverticuli)  
heard from the obs in attempt to propel interstinal contents forward   intestinal rushes (diverticuli)  
dyspnea   clinical manifestation seen with ascities  
most common complication with gastric uler   bleeding  
malabsorption syndrome's most common symptom   diarrhea  
paresophageal   part of the fundus of stomach moves above the diaphragm leading to mechanical constriction of blood vessels in the stomach  
sliding   slides up and then back down with position changes (esp. lying down)  


   





 
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