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A&P 2404 Final

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What are the 2 classes of hormones?   Amino acid based(amines) & Steroid based  
What are the hormones in the Anterior Pituitary?   GH,Prolactin,LH,FSH, ACTC,TSH  
What does GH promote?   Bone muscle growth  
What does prolactin promote?   Milk production & mammary glands  
What does LH promote?   Sex hormone release  
What does FSH promote?   Production of gamates  
ACTC promotes what?   adrenal cortex stimulation  
What does TSH do?   Stimulates Thyroid Hormone  
What are the Hormones of the Posterior Pituitary?   ADH & oxytocin  
ADH is responsible for what?   increasing amount of water retained  
What does oxytocin promote?   uterine contraction & milk ejection  
What are the Hormones of the Thyroid?   Thyroxin & Calcitonin  
What does Thyroxin promote?   stimulates almost Every cell, raises energy, heart rate, metabolic rate to consume energy.  
What does Calcitonin do?   Lowers calcium levels in blood  
What are the Hormones of the Thymus?   Thymosine & Thymopoietin  
What do the Hormones of the Thymus do?   help mature T-cells that grow until puberty then begin to shrink  
What is the Hormone of the Parathyroid?   Parathormone  
What does the PTH do?   Increase calcium levers in blood  
What are the Hormones of the Pancreas?   Insulin, Glucagon,Somatostatin  
Insulin is responsible for?   decreasing blood sugar  
Glucagon is responsible for?   increasing blood sugar  
What is Somatostatin responsible for?   inhibitory to both  
What are the Hormones of the Gonads?   in men:testosterone; in women:estrogen  
What are the hormones of the Adrenal Medulla?   Nor epinephrine & epinephrine  
What are the hormones of the Adrenal Cortex?   Zona Glomerulosa, Zona Faciculata, Zona Reticularis  
Zona Glomerulosa   Aldosterone; increase sodium levels in blood  
What are the 2 classes of hormones?   Amino acid based(amines) & Steroid based  
What are the hormones in the Anterior Pituitary?   GH,Prolactin,LH,FSH, ACTC,TSH  
What does GH promote?   Bone muscle growth  
What does prolactin promote?   Milk production & mammary glands  
What does LH promote?   Sex hormone release  
What does FSH promote?   Production of gamates  
ACTC promotes what?   adrenal cortex stimulation  
What does TSH do?   Stimulates Thyroid Hormone  
What are the Hormones of the Posterior Pituitary?   ADH & oxytocin  
ADH is responsible for what?   increasing amount of water retained  
What does oxytocin promote?   uterine contraction & milk ejection  
What are the Hormones of the Thyroid?   Thyroxin & Calcitonin  
What does Thyroxin promote?   stimulates almost Every cell, raises energy, heart rate, metabolic rate to consume energy.  
What does Calcitonin do?   Lowers calcium levels in blood  
What are the Hormones of the Thymus?   Thymosine & Thymopoietin  
What do the Hormones of the Thymus do?   help mature T-cells that grow until puberty then begin to shrink  
What is the Hormone of the Parathyroid?   Parathormone  
What does the PTH do?   Increase calcium levers in blood  
What are the Hormones of the Pancreas?   Insulin, Glucagon,Somatostatin  
Insulin is responsible for?   decreasing blood sugar  
Glucagon is responsible for?   increasing blood sugar  
What is Somatostatin responsible for?   inhibitory to both  
What are the Hormones of the Gonads?   in men:testosterone; in women:estrogen  
What are the hormones of the Adrenal Medulla?   Nor epinephrine & epinephrine  
What are the hormones of the Adrenal Cortex?   Zona Glomerulosa, Zona Faciculata, Zona Reticularis  
Zona Glomerulosa   Aldosterone; increases sodium levels in blood  
Zona Faciculata   Glucocorticoids; Cortisol; responsible for enegry usage  
Zona Reticularis   Gonadocoricoids; Androgen; male sex hormones  
What are the hormones of the Pineal Gland?   Melatonin & Serotonin  
What are the Hormones of the Pineal Gland responsible for?   Sleep wake cycle and mood  
What are 3 different types of blood cells?   RBC, WBC & Platelets  
Erythrocytes are....   Reb Blood Cells  
What are Platelets responsible for?   blood clotting  
What are two types of Leukocytes?   Granulocytes & Agranulocytes  
Name the Granulocytes.   Neutophil, Eosinophils, Basophil  
Name the Agranulocytes.   Lymphocytes & monocytes  
What are Tropic Hormones?   Hormones who target is another endocrine gland  
What is the Connection between the Endocrine & Nervous System? how?   The Hypothalamus; it releases regulatory chemicals to pituitary& the pituitary affects a lot of endocrine glands  
List Leukocytes in order from most abundant to least.   Neutrophil, Lymphocytes, Monocytes, Eosinophil, Basophil  
Neutrophils   phagocytes  
Lymphocytes   T&B cells (IMMUNE RESPONSE)  
Monocytes   Phagocytes  
Eosinophil   parasitic worms  
Basophil   inflammation; allergies  
What are two pathways for clotting?   Intrinsic & Extrinsic  
Which Pathway for clotting is initiated by factors entirely within blood?   Intrinsic  
Which pathway for clotting is a shortcut that involves input from injured tissues?   Extrinsic  
What makes clotting happen a lot faster?   Tissue Factor  
A possible change in physiological Activity   Changes in membrane permeability or membrane potential  
A posssible change in physiological Activity   Increase or decrease protein sythesis (making of protein)  
A possible change in physiological Activity   Enzyme activation or deactivation  
A possible change in physiological Activity   Mitotic stimulation  
A possible change in physiological Activity   Induction of secretion  
What are the General Activities of Hormones?   hormones circulate in bloodstream to all tissues, each hormone influences only certain tissues which are called targets.  
What are 2 major mechanisms of hormone action?   2nd Messanger system & Gene Activation  
Steroids and thyroxine are based on which major mechanism of hormone action?   Gene activation  
In Gene activation, what goes INTO cell and binds to receptor and THEN into the nucleus(steroid or thyroxine)?   Steroid  
In Gene Activation, What enters the nucleus FIRST then binds to a receptor in the nucleus (Steroid/thyroxine)?   Thyroxine  
What is required for a hormone to activate change?   A receptor  
Which Mechanism of Hormone Action is used by amino acid based hormones?   2nd messanger system  
In the 2nd Messanger system what is the 2nd Messanger?   cAMP  
What are alternate second messangers?   diacyglycerol and IP3  
What are diacyglycerol and IP3 derived from?   PIP2  
What causes release of calcium, that can also act as a 3rd messanger?   IP3  
In 2nd messanger system,A hormone comes together with a G protein and what?   adenylate cyclase  
In 2nd messanger system, a G protein and adenylate cyclase split what?   GTP  
In 2nd messanger system, what does GTP activate?   Adenylate cyclase  
In 2nd messanger system, adenylate cyclase turns ATP into?   cAMP  
These cells carry oxygen.   RBC  
These cells are Hemoglobin packed.   RBC  
RBC's are broken down and recycled by what?   Spleen  
These cells are biconcave discs   RBC  
These are the most Numberous types of blood cell   RBC  
What are the 3 phases of the Cardiac cycle?   Ventricular Filling, Ventricular Systole, and Isovolumetri relaxation  
Systole means the same as   contract, excitation, depolarization  
Diastole means the same as   relaxation, repolarization  
During what part of the Cardiac cycle is blood volume in ventricles are lower than in atria,   Ventricular filling  
During what part of the Cardia cycle are the folling true Atria contraction, 70% passive, & pressure is highest in atria?   Ventricular filling  
What is the period where pressure in ventricles rise quickly to above that in the aorta and S-L valves open?   Ejection period  
In which phase of the Cardiac cycle are all of these true; Isovolumetric contraction, ejection period, Ventricular pressure highest, Atria have 2nd highest pressure, AV valves closed & SL valves open.   Ventricular Systole  
What phase is occuring when the pressure in the aorta is the highest, pressure in ventricles the 2nd highest and pressure in atria the lowest, SL& AV valve closed   Isovolumetric relaxation  
Non contactile cardiac cells that initiate and conduct electrical impulses through the heart   Intrinsic conduction system AKA nodal system  
What cells make the heart pump?   Autorhythmic cells  
These cells have unstable resting potential(slowly drift toward threshold & depolarization)   Autorhythmic cells  
In the Intrinsic conduction system, What does Ca++ influx cause?   Action potential  
In the Pathway of conduction what is known as the pacemaker and is the strongest?   SA node  
Complete the Pathway. SA Node, AV Node, ______, Bundle branches, & Purkinje fibers   AV bundle  
Complete the pathway. _____, AV Node, AV Bundle(bundle of his), Bundle branches, purkinje fibers.   SA Node  
Complete the pathway. SA Node, ______, AV Bundle(bundle of his), Bundle branches, Purkinje fibers   AV Node  
Complete the pathway. SA Node, AV Node, AV bundle, Bundle branches, ___________   Purkinje Fibers  
Complete the pathway. SA Node, AV Node, AV Bundle, _________, Purkinje Fibers   Bundle branches  
What is the formula for Cardiac Output   CO= SVx HR  
In an EKG, the P wave represents...   Atrial Systole;Depolarization of the atria  
In an EKG, the QRS complex represents...   Ventricular Depolarization  
In an EKG, the T wave represents...   Ventricular Repolarization or ventricular relaxation  
In an EKG, Atrial Systole or Depolarization of the atria occurs at what point?   The P-wave  
In an EKG, Ventricular depolarization occurs at what point?   QRS complex  
In an EKG, Ventricular repolarization or relaxation of the ventricles occurs at what point?   T wave  
What are 2 Intervals of an EKG?   PR interval & QT interval  
In an EKG, which interval starts at the beginning of atrial systole to the start of ventricular systole   PR interval  
In an EKG, which interval goes from ventricular depolarization(contraction) to ventricular repolarization   QT interval  
The amount of blood pumped out by a ventricle in 1 minute   Cardiac output  
The volume of blood pumped out by a ventricle in a single beat   Stroke volume  
With High PO2, would hemoglobin have a strong or weak attraction to O2?   Hb would have a strong affinity for O2  
If temperature increase, would the affinity for oxygen increase or decrease?   Hb's affinity for O2 would decrease  
A decrease of pH would strengthen or weaken Hb's affinity for O2?   It would weaken the bond between O2 and Hb  
With high PCO2, would Hb have a strong or weak affinity for O2?   High PCO2 Weakens the affinity of Hb for O2  
Hormones that increase metabolism, raise or lower affinty?   Lower  
What are 3 method of CO2 transport in blood?   dissolved in plasma, bound to Hb, and as a bicarbonate in plasma  
What are the main structures if the Respiratory System?   Nose, Pharynx(throat), trachea, bronchi and lungs  
What does surfactant do?   Reduces surface tension of H2O  
Name 3 phases of Gastric secretion   Cephalic phase, Gastric phase, and intestinal phase  
Which phase of gastric secretion is food before it enters the stomach (sight, smell, sound, taste food) & stimulates gastric secretion; Conditioned response (dampened if food is interesting)   Cephalic phase  
What are the 3 stimuli of the gastric phase of gastric secretion?   distension, increased pH, high protein  
In the gastric phase of gastric secretion,What is distension?   stretch receptors that decrease impulse to medulla back to the stomach  
In the gastric phase of gastric secretion,What is the stimulating to secretion?   Ach  
In the gastric phase of gastric secretion what happens when there is an increase in pH?   gastrin release is stimulated & increase of HCL output  
In the gastric phase of gastric secretion, when do proteins tie up H+   when there is high protein  
In the gastric phase of gastric secretion, what things bind to parietal cells & stimulate HCL output?   Ach, gastrin, histamine  
What phase of gastric secretion is occuring when hormones from the small intesting that regulate stomach emptying?   Intestinal phase  
In gastric secretion._______ _____ is Stimulatory to gastric secretion if the first part of small intestine is too ful, or the chyme is acidic ot too fatty   Intestinal gastrin  
The Intestinal phase of gastric secretion triggers ___________; which inhibits gasrtic secretion-food time in stomach is extended?   Enterogastric reflex  
What is the PCT responsible for as a renal component?   Removal of Ions,amino acids, glucose; H2O flows out(causes volume decrease) & is reabsorbed before reaching the loop  
What is the significance of the Descending limb as a renal component?   is freely permeable to H2O  
What is the ascending arm responsible for as a renal component?   IMpermeable to H2O, Na+, and Cl- actively transported out  
What is the DCT responsible for as a renal component?   generally impermeable to solutes, ALDOSTERONE acts here to mediate Na+, area also RESPONDS TO ADH  
What is the collecting duct responsible for as a renal component?   SITE for FACULTATIVE WATER REABSORPTION(dependent on ADH)  


   





 
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