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momentum, machines, radioactive decay

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momentum   measure of a moving object's tendency to continue along its present path; always conserved in isolated system; is a vector  
momentum equals   p = mv  
elastic collision   collisions where mechanical energy is conserved  
inelastic collision   when colliding objects lose some of their mechanical energy to internal energy  
impulse   change in momentum (J), shows that if time over which force is increased, the same change in velocity can be achieve w/ lower force  
impulse eqn   J = delta(p) = Favg*delta(t) where t is time  
machines   mechanical devices that reduce force when doing work, ex: ramp. lever, and pulley  
ramp   inclined plane, reduces force required to move object to height of h bc force req'd is only mgsin(theta) as opposed to mg  
lever   based on principle of torque where increasing lever arm reduces force req'd  
pulley   allow force to act over greater distance and do the same amt of work **remember that T is the same at every pt in the rope  
half life   length of time necessary for 1/2 of a given amount of a substance to decay  
alpha decay   helium nucleus (2 protons + 2 neutrons)  
beta decay   expulsion of electron  
positron emission   emission of positron (proton transformed into neutron)  
electron capture   capture of electron along with merging of e' with proton to create a neutron  
gamma ray   high frequency photon, no charge and does not change identity of atom of which it is given off  
rest mass energy   E = m*c^2 = latent energy w/in mass of object  
mass defect   the difference in masses of the nucleons before forming the nucleus and the measured mass of the nucleus - this mass is plugged into E=mc^2 to find binding energy  
fusion   combining of two nuclei to for single heavier nucleus  
fission   splitting of single nucleus to form 2 lighter nuclei  


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Created by: miniangel918 on 2010-12-05

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