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20th Century European History - Rise of Hitler to the end of the Cold War

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German Worker's Party   Racist German group that Hitler joined after WWI while visiting subversive groups for the German military  
Anton Drexler   Original leader of the German Worker's Party  
Ruldolf Hess   Hitler's personal secretary and # 3 man.  
Dr. Joseph Goebbels   Only educated member of Hitler's original group and his propoganda Minister.  
Ludendorff   General that helped Hitler try to overthrow the Bavarian government  
Van Kahr   Governor of Bavaria that Hitler tried to overthrow  
SA   Parimilitary unit for Hitler who did all the dirty work for Hitler and the NAZI party. Called the Stormtroopers  
Roehm   Head of the SA and who Hitler killed to appease the army  
Munich Beer Hall Puchd   When Hitler tried to overthrow the Bavarian government with Ludendorff  
Mein Kampf   Bible of the Nazi party and means "My Struggle"  
Central Theme of Mein Kampf?   Race, however, HItler does not define it in his book.  
Cultural Creators   Only the Aryans or the Nordic race fell into this category. (British, Germans, Scandinavians). The best of this race were the Germans.  
Cultural bearers   Hitler was vague about this race, but he seemed to point toward the Mediterranean people here.  
Cultural Destroyers   Definitely classified the Jews and Blacks here  
Early external aims of the NAZI party were?   Gain more territory for Germany that was attached to the origianl German territory.  
Why was the NAZI party popular with the Business class and wealthy?   It was an option that would counter Communisim.  
Why was the NAZI party popular to the peasant class?   It attracted them through promises of agrarian reforms.  
Why was the NAZI party popular with workers?   Hitler promised jobs and security.  
What was NAZI success based upon?   The little man.  
The SA or Storm Troopers wore what color shirts?   Brown shirts. This group provided the muscle for the NAZI party when needed.  
SS   It was an elite group composed from the cream of the SA. It's job was to protect the fuhror.  
Fuhrer means what?   The leader  
President of Germany before Hitler became Chancellor?   Hindenburg  
The party Hitler formed a coalition with in 1933?   Nationalist Party  
This act gave Hitler power to rule by decree for 4 years.   Enabling Act  
Hitler killed this leader of the SA, who was a friend of Hitler's, to appease military leaders who did not like him.   Roehm  
Women got a gold cross for having this many children in NAZI Germany?   8  
Women got a Silver Cross for having this many children in NAZI Germany?   6  
Women got a Bronze Cross for having this many children in NAZI Germany?   5  
Organization that the NAZI party compelled all school children to join?   Hitler Youth  
Treaty of Versailles limited the German Army to this number of men?   100,000  
Chief of the General Staff who helped prepare Germany for war under Hitler and trained German officers in the Soviet Union prior to WWII?   Hans Van Seeckt  
In 1936 Hitler sent this number of troops into the Rhineland?   30,000  
Leader of the Fascist movement in Spain?   Franco  
The Austrian Chancellor in charge when Hitler decided to take Austria over?   Schuscnigg  
Austrian Chancellor gave power to this NAZI official after trying to hold a plebicite in defiance of Hitler.   Arthur Seyss-Inquart  
What does Anschluss mean?   Union or annexation and it refers to what happened with Austria.  
Where was the Sudetenland?   Czechoslavakia  
Neville Chamberlin   Prime Minister of Britain who appeased HItler at Munich in regard to the Sudetenland.  
French Prime Minister who met with Chamberlin over Hitler's demand for the Sudetenland.   Édouard Daladier  
After appeasing Hitler over the Sudetenland, Hitler changed his demands to what?   Hitler demanded that the Sudetenland be seceded in 3 days.  
French Defensive line between France and Germany   Maginot LIne  
Czech president that Hitler demained capitulat or German troops would invade the next day at 9 a.m.   Emil Hácha  
Sea port that Hitler demanded from Lithuania   Memula  
Balkan country Mussolini invaded after seeing the sucess of Germany   Albania  
After taking Czech, Great Britain pledged assistance to these nations?   Greece, Poland, Romania  
Gemany demeanded this port be returned to Germany from Poland   Danzig  
Hitler and Mussolini concluded this alliance on May 22, 1939   Berlin-Rome alliance  
British foreign minister that Hitler summoned so that he would go back to London and tell Chamberlin that once the issue over Poland was over all would be fine.   Neville Henderson  
German foreign minister who the French and British sent messages to after Hitler attacked Poland   Von Ribbentrop  
How much of Poland did Russia want at the end of WWII? To what line?   To the Cruzon line.  
What did Poland get in return for their loss of territory to the Soviet Union   Part of Germany.  
The 1st Japanese island the U.S. wanted to invade before attacking the Japanese main island was?   Kyushu  
The main island of Japan is named?   Honshu  
The Japanese had its best army in this area near the Soviet Union.   Manchuria  
In return for attacking the Japanese Stalin wanted this?   The Sakhalin Islands  
Nationalist Leader of China   Chian Kai-Shek  
Communist leader of China   Mao Zedong  
Prime Minister who replaced Winston Churchill after he was not reelected?   Clement Atley  
Soviet puppet government of Poland recognized at the Potsdam conference   Lublin government  
What was Vichy France   The part of France during WWII that wasn't under Nazi control.  
What was France called under Nazi control?   France  
Who was the leader of Vichy France?   Marshall Petain who was a former soldier that was very conservative. He was a strange mixture of fascism and loyalism.  
What 3 things did the Vichy France leader do to help collaborate with the Germans and to prevent the French people from rebelling?   1. Abolished Free Speech 2. Abolished Freedom of the Press 3. Expanded the Powers of the Police.  
What movement did Charles de Gaulle establish while in Britain during WWII?   The Free French Movement and later it became known as Fighting France.  
What was the name of the man who was the brains behind the Vichy France government?   Pierre Laval.  
Who led the French constiutent assembly after the Provisional Government was disbanded?   Charles de Gaulle  
What new group was allowed to vote in the French constituent assembly election of 1945?   Women  
Which 3 parties won the largest number of delegates in the French constituent election of 1945?   1. The MRP 2. The Socialists 3. The Communists (they won the largest number of seats because they had in many cases led the resistance movements during WWII).  
What was the purpose of the French Constituent Assembly?   To write a new Constitution.  
In the 4th Republic's Constitution what where the two houses of Parliament called?   Lower House=National Assembly and the Upper House=The Council of the Republic  
How was the French Lower House chosen?   Through universal suffarage  
How was the French Upper House chosen?   Through indirect elections.  
What unique power did the French Upper House have?   It could veto measures twice but if the Lower House passed a measure 3 times it became law. Therefore, the Upper House could delay measures from becoming law.  
Under the 4th Republic how long did the President serve?   7 years  
Who was the first president of the 4th Republic?   Auriol  
What was the average length of governments during the 4th Republic?   6 months and there was a total of 17 governments between liberation and the formation of the 5th Republic.  
What plan helped pull France away from the verge of bankruptcy in 1949?   The Marshall Plan.  
What two causes caused the French economic decline at the end of 1950?   1. The need to rearm becasue of the Soviet Union. 2. The cost of the war in Indochina.  
During the early 1950's who was the forceful Radical Socialist in France that began to warn that the country that its economic and colonial policies would soon bankrupt the country? He later became Prime Minister.   Pierre Mendes-France  
Where did the French suffer a major defeat in its Indochina war?   Drein-Bien-Phu  
What did the enemies of Mendes-France call him?   An Empire wrecker.  
What colonies in Africa erupted into violence during the time of the Mendes-France government?   Tunisia and Morocco  
What did Mendes-France offer the African colony that erupted in violence in 1954 when he flew there to negotiate?   He offered Tunisia autonomy if that's what it wanted.  
What economic plan did Mendes-France propose?   The reconversion of French industry. Readapt labor for new jobs that would open up because of new technology. Give workers a stipend to help through this difficult period.  
Which country did Mendes-France helped bring into NATO?   Germany  
What were 3 reasons people did not like Mendes-France?   1. He was Jewish. 2. He did not like to drink and thought alcohol was bad for people. 3. He was married to a wealthy women.  
Who was the successor of Mendes-France?   Edgar Faure  
How did Edgar Faure differ from Mendes-France?   1. He followed a concillitory line in Tunisia. 2. He wanted less government interference in regard to free enterprise.  
After losing contol of the government, what did Mendes-France propose?   He wanted electoral reform, whereby one party could secure a majority in the lower house by getting just a plurality of the votes.  
Why didn't Mendes-France and Edgar Faure enact electoral reform in the lower house?   They had a falling out and the Faure government soon fell.  
Who replaced Edgar Faure as French Prime Minister?   Guy Mollet  
What did the Mollet government do in regard to the nationalist uprisings in Tunisia and Morocco?   France gave the two colonies independence.  
What were the European settlers called who lived in Algeria during the 1954 uprising?   Colons  
What did Mollet do that stirred the Algerian uprising up significantly?   Rotated 500,000 French soldiers to Algeria.  
Why did the Mollet government fall?   On the issue of how to pay for the war in Algeria, which was costing 1 billion Francs per day.  
Who was the Prime Minister who took over after Mollet?   Felix Gaillard  
What caused a group of French Army officers to overthrow the Algerian Civilian Government in 1958?   Gaillard's government began to consider bold action to end the stalemate in Algeria.  
Who were the two French generals who led the Algerian overthrow?   Salam and Massu  
What did the French overthrowers name the council they set up after the Algerian overthrow?   The Committee of Public Safety  
When asked if he would come back and lead France out of the Algerian mess, what two things did Charles de Gaulle say must happen first?   1. He needed 6 months of emergency power to rule by decree. 2. That he was given a mandate to write a new constitution.  
He replaced the Gaillard government when the National Assembly hedged over bringing de Gaulle back to solve the Algerian problem?   Pfimlin  
What led French President Coty to tell the legislature "either you face a civil war or you accept de Gaulle."   The French Navy mutinied and Pfimlin resigned as Prime Minister  
Who was the last Prime Minister of the 4th Republic?   Charles de Gaulle  
What did de Gaulle do a few days after he was given the power to rule by decree?   Visited Algiers and met with the Committee of Public Safety to ensure that the immediate crisis pass.  
Which house did the new constitution under the 5th Republic take and give to the President?   The Lower House (the National Assembly)  
What could a 5th Republic President do?   1. Appoint a Prime Minister. 2. Disolve the National Assembly. 3. Assume dictatorial powers in case of an emergency.  
Under the 5th Republic, which new organization oversaw the constiution? It's similar to the U.S. Supreme Court.   The Constitutional Council.  
How many people sit on the Constiutional Council, who appoints them, and how long do they serve?   1. There are 9 members of the council. 2. They serve for life. 3. Three are appointed by the Pres., three by the lower house, and three by the upper house.  
Who is the 1st President of the 5th Republic?   Charles de Gaulle  
What did de Gaulle do to dispel people's fear that he would become a dictator, since the 5th Republic Constiution was tailor made for him?   He took an oath to the Constitutin and tried to follow its rules; although, he occsionally came close to breaking them (usually only where the rules were gray though).  
What former Prime Minister of the 4th Republic became upset with de Gaulle saying he was violating the constitution?   Auriol, the 1st Prime Minister under the 4th Republic.  
What was the French Empire called?   The French Union  
What did de Gaulle changed the name of the French Empire to, which was similar to what the British had earlier done with their colonies?   It was called the French Community and colonies were given independence or they would remain under French rule.  
What was the only French colony that chose to vote for independence from the French Empire in 1958?   French New Guinea  
What advantages were their for colonies who decided to remain as a part of the French Community?   Treaties and defense  
What was the name of the program that de Gaul instiuted, which was intended to prevent periodic government crisis and promote ecnomic growth?   Truth and Austerity  
What did the Truth and Austerity program do?   1. Cut government spending. 2. Raised Taxes. 3. Devalued the Franc. 4. Lifted many restriction on exports.  
Was the Truth and Austerity program successful?   Yes, it brought a level of prospertiy unmatched in recent French history.  
What was the name of the loose confederation of European states that de Gaulle proposed?   The European Federation.  
What was de Gaulle's greatest failure during his first two years as President.   Not getting a permanent solution in Algeria.  
What did de Gaul hope for in regard to Algeria?   A third force that would be a group of moderates who would help end the settlement.  
What was de Gaulle's plan for a nuclear deterrent named?   Force de frappe  
After de Gaulle was censored by the National Assemblym for circumventing constutional rules, which Prime Minister was forced to resign?   George Pompidou  
What orginization did de Gaul use his veto power to prevent the British from joining?   European Common Market  
What was the name of the treaty that de Gaulle and German Chancellor Adenauer signed in 1963?   Treaty of Reconcilliation  
Afte the Chancellor Adenauer resigned who became German Chancellor?   Ludwig Erherd  
What did de Gaulle pressure Germany from signing with the U.S.?   A treaty that would give Germany some say over the nuclear weapons the U.S. had deployed on its soil.  
When students and workers rioted in France over university overcrowding and expensive housing, who was the French Prime Minister who at first took all the flack?   Pompidou  
What finally led to de Gaulle's defeat?   He tied a vote for constitutional changes to a vote of confidence for himself. The changes were voted down; therefore, de Gaulle retired.  
What was the treaty called that the Soviets put pressure on Turkey to revamp called?   Treaty of Montreaux  
What caused the Truman administration to reverse the United States' isolationast policy?   Fighting in Greece against communist guerillas and the issue over the Turkish treaty that the Soviets wanted revamped.  
What doctrine was crucial in stopping the spread of Communism?   The Truman Doctrine  
How much money did the U.S. give to Greece and Turkey to help them ward of Communism under Truman?   Greece = 250 million dollars and Turkey = 150 million dollars  
Under the Marshall Plan how much money at first was promised?   4 billion, but it was increased to 13 billion  
Which European countries mostly got the Marshall Plan money?   France, Italy, and Great Britain.  
What was the purpose of the Marshall Plan?   1. To rebuild Europe. 2. To stop the spread of communists and socialists. 3. To open up new markets for the U.S. 4. To encourage discussions and cooperation between European nations.  
What was NATO?   A Western European military alliance led by the U.S., (it also included Canada) whose members promised to come to each others aid if any of them were attacked.  
What organization led by the Soviet Union opposed NATO?   The Warsaw Pact  
When Stalin died who took over?   Khrushchev  
What was the inner circle of the communist party called?   The Presidium  
What was the first crisis after a speech was given to the communist party about the speech on Stalin's oppresive rule?   The Suez canal  
Who was the President of Egypt?   Nasser  
Who did the Poles and Soviets eventually agree to lead Poland after the Polish government refused to accept Moscow's handpicked leader?   Gomulka  
What two things did Israel win with its war with Egypt?   The Sinaie and Gaza strip; however, they left those ares in 1957.  
What did the Polish Prime Minister do after he got Soviet acceptance?   Moved to halt the collectivization of Polish agriculutre, and to improve relations betwee the Polish governmetn and the Roman Catholic Church.  
When Hungarians demonstrated in support of the Poles, who did they replace as their new leader?   Imre Nagey.  
What did the new Hungarian leader, Imre Nagey, do that upset the Soviets?   1. Appealed to non communist groups for support. 2. Wanted Soviet troops to leave. 3. He wanted Hungary to remain neutral. 4. He wanted to withdraw Hungary from the Warsaw Pact.  
After Nagey, the Hungarian Prime Minister moved too quickly for the Soviets, who did Moscow replace him with?   Janos Kader  
Why did Krushchev shoot down America's U2 spy plane before the Paris Summit conference with Eishenhower?   1. To prove their technology was good enough to do it. 2. They hoped it would cause disagreement between French, British and Americans at the conference. 3. To appease Chinese communists who thought the Soviets lacked zeal.  
What city did JFK and Krushchev meet in at the start of the Kennedy presidency?   Vienna  
Who did the U.S. send to Berlin to calm the fears of West Berliners who were in Berlin win the Wall went up?   Lyndon Johnson  
What was the name of the Cuban government that Fidel Castro overthrew in 1957?   The government of Batista  
What was the last major cold war confrontation?   The Cuban Missle Crisis.  
In what way did the U.S. and the Soviet Union agree on to limit the tensions between the two super powers in 1963?   They signed a nuclear test ban treaty.  
What was the name of the socialist chancellor of West Germany that moved to improve relations with East Germany?   Brandt  
Why did the Presidium run Khruschev out of power?   1. Tried to bring reforms too quickly to the Soviet Union. 2. People were upset over the Cuban Missle Crisis.  
Who did the Presidium replace Khruschev with?   They replaced him with two men: 1. Prime Minister Kosygin 2. Party Secretary Brezhnev  
What did the new Party Secretary of the Soviet Union do soon after he rose to the top as leader of the Soviet Union?   Rolled back Khruschev's reforms; however, not to the way things were under Stalin  
What was the name of the Czech Prime Minister who began to expierement with Democratic reforms while Brezhnev was in power?   Alexander Dubcek  
What did Czech president Dubcek want to do that upset Brezhnev?   He wanted to give Communisim a human face by exanding free speech, and by liberalizing society to permit greater freedoms.  
When the Czech leader named Dubchec ignored Soviet demands what happened?   The Soviet Union invaded Czechoslovakia, and arrested Dubchec, and put new leaders in charge  
What was did the Brezhnev doctrine state?   1. The Soviet Union had the right to interfere in the communist politics of other communist nations if it suits them.  
Who was the leader of Yugoslavia who was communist but never joined totally with the Soviets?   Tito  
What was Nixon's policy toward the Soviet Union called and what did it entail?   D'etente. It concluded agreements on trade and mutual reductions in the nuclear stockpiles of both countries.  
Did Nixon's plan called D'entente work in regard to the Soviet Union?   No, the Soviets continued to pour money into defense.  
Under Gereald Ford, who replaced Nixon, what did the Soviet Union and the U.S. both sign along with many other nations?   The Helsinki accords, which recognized the Soviet sphere of influence but also commited them to protect the human rights of its citizens.  
Which U.S. President was a strong advocate for human rights, and who objected to Soviet treatment of its citizens.   Jimmy Carter  
What did Jimmy Carter want to do in terms of the Soviet Union and the accord they signed?   Carter wanted to force the Soviets to uphold thier agreement under the Helsinki Accord.  
Under the leadership of Jimmy Carter, which country did the Soviet Union invade that helped lead to another worsening of relations between the U.S. and the Soviet Union?   Afghanistan  
What was the U.S. response to the Soviet Union's invasion of Afghanistan?   1. Congress refused to ratify the strategic arms agreement that the President had agreed to. 2. It placed an embargo on exports of grain. 3. The U.S. boycotted the Moscow Olympics.  
What things did President Regan do toward the Soviet Union once he became President?   1. Relaxed the grain embargo. 2. Paid less attention to human rights compared to Carter. 3. Increased military spending. 4. Slowed down arms limitation argreements. 5. Increased Cold War rhetoric. 6. Proposed Star Wars or the "strategic defense initiative  
What was the most famous strike that occured in Poland, which caused Gomulka to step down?   The Gdansk shipyard strike.  
Who replaced Gomulka after the government killed several strikers?   Gierk  
Soon after Gomulka was replaced as leader of Poland what did the new leader do that angered Poles, how did the Poles react, and where did another major strike occur that touched off further strikes?   Gierk raised meat prices, which in turn led people to protest and strike all over the country. The worst strike occured at the main Gdansk shipyard called the Lenin shipyard.  
What was the name of the leader who emerged as the leader of the Solidarity movement in Poland?   Lech Walesa  
How did Gierk end the nationwide strikes and protests?   Gierk promised workers that they could organize their own independent trade unions and that the Polish Catholic Church could have acess to the media.  
What was the name of the leader that soon replaced the Polish leader Gierk?   Kania  
After the Polish Communist party had free elections in secret and continued to push for more liberal reforms, who replaced Kania once the Soviet Union began to protest?   Jaruzlski  
What did Jaruzlski right after he came to power in Poland?   Suspended the Polish constitution, moved against the Solidarity Union and put Walesa and other leaders in jail. Later Jaruzlski placed the country under martial law.  
Who became the head of the Soviet Union after Brezhnev's death in 1982?   Andropov a former KGB leader.  
After Andropov died soon after replacing Brezhnev, who was made leader of the Soviet Union?   Cherneko  
After Cherneko died who came to lead the Soviet Union?   Gorbachev  
What was the name of the reforms that Gorbachev proposed that he hoped would restore the old Bolshevik vision?   Perestrokia  
What reforms would Perestrokia bring?   Under Perestroika the economy would first be reformed by giving control of enterprises to the local level and then move toward total free enterprise. 2. After the economy was reformed then political reforms would be instituted  
What was the affect of Perestrokia?   It didn't do much for the economy, which stagnated and even declined some. There were shortages of food, consumer goods, and housing.  
When economic reforms didn't work as Gorbachev planned under Perestrokia, what did Gorbachev do next?   He moved toward Political reforms and proposed Glasnost, which means openness.  
What did Glasnost entail?   Free speech was encouraged, censorship was relaxed, dissidents were released, free debates occured in Congress, factory workers could criticize party officials and the government.  
Which group of people did Glasnost encourage to rise up?   Minorities all over the Soviet Union.  
Which organization that didn't have the power of the Presidium gained power under Gorbachev and had free elections in 1988 when a new constitution was written?   Congress of People's Deputies  
What former scientist, who was persecuted under Brezhnev, was elected to the Congress of People's Deputies?   Sakharov  
What did the Presidium change its name to under Gorbachev?   The Supreme Soviet  
After the new Soviet Constitution was written and free elections occured in the Congress of People's Deputies what did Jarzelski do in Poland?   Relaxed martial law, and released Solidarity leaders from jail.  
Who replaced Jarzelski as Poland's first non communist prime minister while under the control of the Soviet Union?   Mazowiecki  
What did the Hungarian Communist Party change its name to after Kader was kicked out of power?   The Socialist Party  
In 1989, where did major East German demonstrations occur?   Leipzig  
What East German Prime Minister resigned after Gorbachev said the East Germans were on their own?   Honecker  
What did the East German Communist Party change its name to after Gorbachev told them that they were on their own?   Social Democratic Party  


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