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10&11: Agriculture and Industry

Quiz yourself by thinking what should be in each of the black spaces below before clicking on it to display the answer.

agriculture   deliberate modification of Earth's surface through cultivation of plants and rearing of animals to obtain sustenance or economic gain  
crop   any plant cultivated by people  
vegetative planting   reproduction of plants by direct cloning from existing plants (cutting stems & dividing roots)  
seed agriculture   reproduction of plants through annual planting of seeds that result from sexual fertilization  
subsistence agriculture   production of food primarily for consumption by the farmer's family  
commercial agriculture   production of food primarily for sale off the farm  
agribusiness   system of commercial farming found in the United States and other relatively developed countries  
prime agricultural land   most productive farmland  
shifting cultivation   form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for a relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period  
slash-and-burn agriculture   farmers clear land for planting by slashing vegetation and burning the debris  
swidden   patch of land cleared for planting through slashing and burning  
pastoral nomadism   form of sutsistence agriculture based on the herding of domesticated animals  
transhumance   seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pasture areas  
pasture   grass or other plants grown for feeding grazing animals, as well as land used for grazing  
intensive subsistence agriculture   form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land  
wet rice   practice of planting rice on dry land in a nursery and then moving the seedlings to a flooded field to promote growth  
paddy   Malay word for wet rice  
sawah   flooded field for growing rice  
chaff   husks of grain seperated from the seed by threshing  
threshed   beat out grain from stalks by trampling it  
winnowed   to remove chaff by allowing it to be blown away by the wind  
hull   outer covering of a seed  
double cropping   harvesting twice a year from the same field  
crop rotation   practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil  
cereal grain   grass yielding grain for food  
milkshed   area surrouding a city from which milk is supplied  
grain   seed of a cereal grain  
winter wheat   wheat planted in the fall and harvested in the early summer  
spring wheat   wheat planted in the spring and harvested in the late summer  
reaper   machine that cuts grain standing in the field  
combine   machine that reaps, threshes, and cleans grain while moving over a field  
ranching   form of commercial agriculture in which livestock graze over an extensive area  
horticulture   growing of fruits, vegetables, and flowers  
truck farming   commercial gardening and fruit farming, so named because truck was a Middle English word meaning bartering or the exchange of commodities  
plantation   large farm in tropical and subtropical climates that specializes in the production of one or two crops for sale, usully to a more developed country  
sustainable agriculture   farming methods that preserve long-term productivity of land and minimize pollution, typically by rotating soil-restoring crops with cash crops and reducing inputs of fertilizer and pesticides  
ridge tillage   system of planting crops on ridge tops, in order to reduce farm production costs and promote greater soil conservation  
desertification   degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions like excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting  
green revolution   rapid diffustion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers  
break-of-bulk point   location where transfer is possible from one mode of transportation to another  
bulk-gaining industry   industry in which the final product weighs more or comprises a greater volume than the inputs  
bulk-reducing industry   industry in which the final product weighs less or comprises a lower volume than the inputs  
cottage industry   manufacturing based in homes rather than in a factory, commonly found before the industrial revolution  
fordist   form of mass production in which each worker is assigned one specific task to perform repeatedly  
industrial revolution   series of improvements in industrial technoogy that transformed the process of manufacturing goods  
labor-intensive industry   industry for which labor costs comprise a high percentage of total expenses  
maquiladora   factories built by USA companies in Mexico near the U.S. border to take advantage of much lower labor costs in Mexico  
new international divistion of labor   transfer of some types of jobs, especially those requiring low-paid less skilled workers, from more developed to less developed countries  
post-fordist   adoption by companies of flexible work rules, such as the allocation of workers to teams that perform a variety of tasks  
right-to-work state   a U.S. state that has passed a law preventing a union and company from negotiating a contract that requires workers to join a union as a condition of employment  
site factors   location factors related to the costs of factors of production inside the plant, such as land, labor, and capital  
situation factors   location factors related to the transportation of materials into and from a factory  
textile   fabric made by weaving, used in making clothing  
trading bloc   group of neighboring countries that promote trade with each other and erect barriers to limit trade with other blocs  


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